R7RS small specification

Note: This is a port of R7RS specification from tex to markdown that is rendered to html. It does not include formal semantics.

Summary

The report gives a defining description of the programming language Scheme. Scheme is a statically scoped and properly tail recursive dialect of the Lisp programming language  invented by Guy Lewis Steele Jr. and Gerald Jay Sussman. It was designed to have exceptionally clear and simple semantics and few different ways to form expressions. A wide variety of programming paradigms, including imperative, functional, and object-oriented styles, find convenient expression in Scheme.

The introduction offers a brief history of the language and of the report.

The first three chapters present the fundamental ideas of the language and describe the notational conventions used for describing the language and for writing programs in the language.

Chapters [expressionchapter] and [programchapter] describe the syntax and semantics of expressions, definitions, programs, and libraries.

Chapter [builtinchapter] describes Scheme’s built-in procedures, which include all of the language’s data manipulation and input/output primitives.

Chapter [formalchapter] provides a formal syntax for Scheme written in extended BNF, along with a formal denotational semantics. An example of the use of the language follows the formal syntax and semantics.

Appendix [stdlibraries] provides a list of the standard libraries and the identifiers that they export.

Appendix [stdfeatures] provides a list of optional but standardized implementation feature names.

The report concludes with a list of references and an alphabetic index.

Note: The editors of the R5RS and R6RS reports are listed as authors of this report in recognition of the substantial portions of this report that are copied directly from R5RS and R6RS. There is no intended implication that those editors, individually or collectively, support or do not support this report.

Contents

Programming languages should be designed not by piling feature on top of feature, but by removing the weaknesses and restrictions that make additional features appear necessary. Scheme demonstrates that a very small number of rules for forming expressions, with no restrictions on how they are composed, suffice to form a practical and efficient programming language that is flexible enough to support most of the major programming paradigms in use today.

Scheme was one of the first programming languages to incorporate first-class procedures as in the lambda calculus, thereby proving the usefulness of static scope rules and block structure in a dynamically typed language. Scheme was the first major dialect of Lisp to distinguish procedures from lambda expressions and symbols, to use a single lexical environment for all variables, and to evaluate the operator position of a procedure call in the same way as an operand position. By relying entirely on procedure calls to express iteration, Scheme emphasized the fact that tail-recursive procedure calls are essentially GOTOs that pass arguments, thus allowing a programming style that is both coherent and efficient. Scheme was the first widely used programming language to embrace first-class escape procedures, from which all previously known sequential control structures can be synthesized. A subsequent version of Scheme introduced the concept of exact and inexact numbers, an extension of Common Lisp’s generic arithmetic. More recently, Scheme became the first programming language to support hygienic macros, which permit the syntax of a block-structured language to be extended in a consistent and reliable manner.

Background

The first description of Scheme was written in 1975 . A revised report  appeared in 1978, which described the evolution of the language as its MIT implementation was upgraded to support an innovative compiler . Three distinct projects began in 1981 and 1982 to use variants of Scheme for courses at MIT, Yale, and Indiana University . An introductory computer science textbook using Scheme was published in 1984 .

As Scheme became more widespread, local dialects began to diverge until students and researchers occasionally found it difficult to understand code written at other sites. Fifteen representatives of the major implementations of Scheme therefore met in October 1984 to work toward a better and more widely accepted standard for Scheme. Their report, the RRRS , was published at MIT and Indiana University in the summer of 1985. Further revision took place in the spring of 1986, resulting in the R3RS . Work in the spring of 1988 resulted in R4RS , which became the basis for the IEEE Standard for the Scheme Programming Language in 1991 . In 1998, several additions to the IEEE standard, including high-level hygienic macros, multiple return values, and eval, were finalized as the R5RS .

In the fall of 2006, work began on a more ambitious standard, including many new improvements and stricter requirements made in the interest of improved portability. The resulting standard, the R6RS, was completed in August 2007 , and was organized as a core language and set of mandatory standard libraries. Several new implementations of Scheme conforming to it were created. However, most existing R5RS implementations (even excluding those which are essentially unmaintained) did not adopt R6RS, or adopted only selected parts of it.

In consequence, the Scheme Steering Committee decided in August 2009 to divide the standard into two separate but compatible languages — a “small” language, suitable for educators, researchers, and users of embedded languages, focused on R5RS compatibility, and a “large” language focused on the practical needs of mainstream software development, intended to become a replacement for R6RS. The present report describes the “small” language of that effort: therefore it cannot be considered in isolation as the successor to R6RS.

We intend this report to belong to the entire Scheme community, and so we grant permission to copy it in whole or in part without fee. In particular, we encourage implementers of Scheme to use this report as a starting point for manuals and other documentation, modifying it as necessary.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the members of the Steering Committee, William Clinger, Marc Feeley, Chris Hanson, Jonathan Rees, and Olin Shivers, for their support and guidance.

This report is very much a community effort, and we’d like to thank everyone who provided comments and feedback, including the following people: David Adler, Eli Barzilay, Taylan Ulrich Bayırlı/Kammer, Marco Benelli, Pierpaolo Bernardi, Peter Bex, Per Bothner, John Boyle, Taylor Campbell, Raffael Cavallaro, Ray Dillinger, Biep Durieux, Sztefan Edwards, Helmut Eller, Justin Ethier, Jay Reynolds Freeman, Tony Garnock-Jones, Alan Manuel Gloria, Steve Hafner, Sven Hartrumpf, Brian Harvey, Moritz Heidkamp, Jean-Michel Hufflen, Aubrey Jaffer, Takashi Kato, Shiro Kawai, Richard Kelsey, Oleg Kiselyov, Pjotr Kourzanov, Jonathan Kraut, Daniel Krueger, Christian Stigen Larsen, Noah Lavine, Stephen Leach, Larry D. Lee, Kun Liang, Thomas Lord, Vincent Stewart Manis, Perry Metzger, Michael Montague, Mikael More, Vitaly Magerya, Vincent Manis, Vassil Nikolov, Joseph Wayne Norton, Yuki Okumura, Daichi Oohashi, Jeronimo Pellegrini, Jussi Piitulainen, Alex Queiroz, Jim Rees, Grant Rettke, Andrew Robbins, Devon Schudy, Bakul Shah, Robert Smith, Arthur Smyles, Michael Sperber, John David Stone, Jay Sulzberger, Malcolm Tredinnick, Sam Tobin-Hochstadt, Andre van Tonder, Daniel Villeneuve, Denis Washington, Alan Watson, Mark H. Weaver, Göran Weinholt, David A. Wheeler, Andy Wingo, James Wise, Jörg F. Wittenberger, Kevin A. Wortman, Sascha Ziemann.

In addition we would like to thank all the past editors, and the people who helped them in turn: Hal Abelson, Norman Adams, David Bartley, Alan Bawden, Michael Blair, Gary Brooks, George Carrette, Andy Cromarty, Pavel Curtis, Jeff Dalton, Olivier Danvy, Ken Dickey, Bruce Duba, Robert Findler, Andy Freeman, Richard Gabriel, Yekta Gürsel, Ken Haase, Robert Halstead, Robert Hieb, Paul Hudak, Morry Katz, Eugene Kohlbecker, Chris Lindblad, Jacob Matthews, Mark Meyer, Jim Miller, Don Oxley, Jim Philbin, Kent Pitman, John Ramsdell, Guillermo Rozas, Mike Shaff, Jonathan Shapiro, Guy Steele, Julie Sussman, Perry Wagle, Mitchel Wand, Daniel Weise, Henry Wu, and Ozan Yigit. We thank Carol Fessenden, Daniel Friedman, and Christopher Haynes for permission to use text from the Scheme 311 version 4 reference manual. We thank Texas Instruments, Inc. for permission to use text from the TI Scheme Language Reference Manual . We gladly acknowledge the influence of manuals for MIT Scheme , T , Scheme 84 , Common Lisp , and Algol 60 , as well as the following SRFIs: 0, 1, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13, 16, 30, 34, 39, 43, 46, 62, and 87, all of which are available at http://srfi.schemers.org.

Overview of Scheme

Semantics

This section gives an overview of Scheme’s semantics. A detailed informal semantics is the subject of chapters [basicchapter] through [builtinchapter]. For reference purposes, section [formalsemanticssection] provides a formal semantics of Scheme.

Scheme is a statically scoped programming language. Each use of a variable is associated with a lexically apparent binding of that variable.

Scheme is a dynamically typed language. Types are associated with values (also called objects) rather than with variables. Statically typed languages, by contrast, associate types with variables and expressions as well as with values.

All objects created in the course of a Scheme computation, including procedures and continuations, have unlimited extent. No Scheme object is ever destroyed. The reason that implementations of Scheme do not (usually!) run out of storage is that they are permitted to reclaim the storage occupied by an object if they can prove that the object cannot possibly matter to any future computation.

Implementations of Scheme are required to be properly tail-recursive. This allows the execution of an iterative computation in constant space, even if the iterative computation is described by a syntactically recursive procedure. Thus with a properly tail-recursive implementation, iteration can be expressed using the ordinary procedure-call mechanics, so that special iteration constructs are useful only as syntactic sugar. See section [proper tail recursion].

Scheme procedures are objects in their own right. Procedures can be created dynamically, stored in data structures, returned as results of procedures, and so on.

One distinguishing feature of Scheme is that continuations, which in most other languages only operate behind the scenes, also have “first-class” status. Continuations are useful for implementing a wide variety of advanced control constructs, including non-local exits, backtracking, and coroutines. See section [continuations].

Arguments to Scheme procedures are always passed by value, which means that the actual argument expressions are evaluated before the procedure gains control, regardless of whether the procedure needs the result of the evaluation.

Scheme’s model of arithmetic is designed to remain as independent as possible of the particular ways in which numbers are represented within a computer. In Scheme, every integer is a rational number, every rational is a real, and every real is a complex number. Thus the distinction between integer and real arithmetic, so important to many programming languages, does not appear in Scheme. In its place is a distinction between exact arithmetic, which corresponds to the mathematical ideal, and inexact arithmetic on approximations. Exact arithmetic is not limited to integers.

Syntax

Scheme, like most dialects of Lisp, employs a fully parenthesized prefix notation for programs and other data; the grammar of Scheme generates a sublanguage of the language used for data. An important consequence of this simple, uniform representation is that Scheme programs and data can easily be treated uniformly by other Scheme programs. For example, the eval procedure evaluates a Scheme program expressed as data.

The read procedure performs syntactic as well as lexical decomposition of the data it reads. The read procedure parses its input as data (section [datumsyntax]), not as program.

The formal syntax of Scheme is described in section [BNF].

Notation and terminology

Base and optional features

Every identifier defined in this report appears in one or more of several libraries. Identifiers defined in the base library are not marked specially in the body of the report. This library includes the core syntax of Scheme and generally useful procedures that manipulate data. For example, the variable abs is bound to a procedure of one argument that computes the absolute value of a number, and the variable + is bound to a procedure that computes sums. The full list all the standard libraries and the identifiers they export is given in Appendix [stdlibraries].

All implementations of Scheme:

Error situations and unspecified behavior

When speaking of an error situation, this report uses the phrase “an error is signaled” to indicate that implementations must detect and report the error. An error is signaled by raising a non-continuable exception, as if by the procedure raise as described in section [exceptionsection]. The object raised is implementation-dependent and need not be distinct from objects previously used for the same purpose. In addition to errors signaled in situations described in this report, programmers can signal their own errors and handle signaled errors.

The phrase “an error that satisfies predicate is signaled” means that an error is signaled as above. Furthermore, if the object that is signaled is passed to the specified predicate (such as file-error? or read-error?), the predicate returns #t.

If such wording does not appear in the discussion of an error, then implementations are not required to detect or report the error, though they are encouraged to do so. Such a situation is sometimes, but not always, referred to with the phrase “an error.” In such a situation, an implementation may or may not signal an error; if it does signal an error, the object that is signaled may or may not satisfy the predicates error-object?, file-error?, or read-error?. Alternatively, implementations may provide non-portable extensions.

For example, it is an error for a procedure to be passed an argument of a type that the procedure is not explicitly specified to handle, even though such domain errors are seldom mentioned in this report. Implementations may signal an error, extend a procedure’s domain of definition to include such arguments, or fail catastrophically.

This report uses the phrase “may report a violation of an implementation restriction” to indicate circumstances under which an implementation is permitted to report that it is unable to continue execution of a correct program because of some restriction imposed by the implementation. Implementation restrictions are discouraged, but implementations are encouraged to report violations of implementation restrictions.

For example, an implementation may report a violation of an implementation restriction if it does not have enough storage to run a program, or if an arithmetic operation would produce an exact number that is too large for the implementation to represent.

If the value of an expression is said to be “unspecified,” then the expression must evaluate to some object without signaling an error, but the value depends on the implementation; this report explicitly does not say what value is returned.

Finally, the words and phrases “must,” “must not,” “shall,” “shall not,” “should,” “should not,” “may,” “required,” “recommended,” and “optional,” although not capitalized in this report, are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 . They are used only with reference to implementer or implementation behavior, not with reference to programmer or program behavior.

Entry format

Chapters [expressionchapter] and [builtinchapter] are organized into entries. Each entry describes one language feature or a group of related features, where a feature is either a syntactic construct or a procedure. An entry begins with one or more header lines of the form

template category

for identifiers in the base library, or

template name library category

where name is the short name of a library as defined in Appendix [stdlibraries].

If category is “syntax,” the entry describes an expression type, and the template gives the syntax of the expression type. Components of expressions are designated by syntactic variables, which are written using angle brackets, for example expression and variable. Syntactic variables are intended to denote segments of program text; for example, expression stands for any string of characters which is a syntactically valid expression. The notation

thing ...

indicates zero or more occurrences of a thing, and

thing thing ...

indicates one or more occurrences of a thing.

If category is “auxiliary syntax,” then the entry describes a syntax binding that occurs only as part of specific surrounding expressions. Any use as an independent syntactic construct or variable is an error.

If category is “procedure,” then the entry describes a procedure, and the header line gives a template for a call to the procedure. Argument names in the template are italicized. Thus the header line

(vector-ref vector k) procedure

indicates that the procedure bound to the vector-ref variable takes two arguments, a vector vector and an exact non-negative integer k (see below). The header lines

(make-vector k) procedure

(make-vector k fill) procedure

indicate that the make-vector procedure must be defined to take either one or two arguments.

It is an error for a procedure to be presented with an argument that it is not specified to handle. For succinctness, we follow the convention that if an argument name is also the name of a type listed in section [disjointness], then it is an error if that argument is not of the named type. For example, the header line for vector-ref given above dictates that the first argument to vector-ref is a vector. The following naming conventions also imply type restrictions:

alist association list (list of pairs)
boolean boolean value (#t or #f)
byte exact integer 0 ≤ byte < 256
bytevector bytevector
char character
end exact non-negative integer
k, k1, … kj, … exact non-negative integer
letters alphabetic character
list, list1, … listj, … list (see section [listsection])
n, n1, … nj, … integer
obj any object
pair pair
port port
proc procedure
q, q1, … qj, … rational number
start exact non-negative integer
string string
symbol symbol
thunk zero-argument procedure
vector vector
x, x1, … xj, … real number
y, y1, … yj, … real number
z, z1, … zj, … complex number

The names start and end are used as indexes into strings, vectors, and bytevectors. Their use implies the following:

Evaluation examples

The symbol “=>” used in program examples is read “evaluates to.” For example,

(* 5 8) ;; => 40

means that the expression (* 5 8) evaluates to the object 40. Or, more precisely: the expression given by the sequence of characters “(* 5 8)” evaluates, in an environment containing the base library, to an object that can be represented externally by the sequence of characters “40.” See section [externalreps] for a discussion of external representations of objects.

Naming conventions

By convention, ? is the final character of the names of procedures that always return a boolean value. Such procedures are called predicates. Predicates are generally understood to be side-effect free, except that they may raise an exception when passed the wrong type of argument.

Similarly, ! is the final character of the names of procedures that store values into previously allocated locations (see section [storagemodel]). Such procedures are called mutation procedures. The value returned by a mutation procedure is unspecified.

By convention, “->” appears within the names of procedures that take an object of one type and return an analogous object of another type. For example, list->vector takes a list and returns a vector whose elements are the same as those of the list.

A command is a procedure that does not return useful values to its continuation.

A thunk is a procedure that does not accept arguments.

Lexical conventions

This section gives an informal account of some of the lexical conventions used in writing Scheme programs. For a formal syntax of Scheme, see section [BNF].

Identifiers

An identifier is any sequence of letters, digits, and “extended identifier characters” provided that it does not have a prefix which is a valid number. However, the . token (a single period) used in the list syntax is not an identifier.

All implementations of Scheme must support the following extended identifier characters:

!\ \$ \% & * + - . / :\ < = > ? @ ^ _ ~ %

Alternatively, an identifier can be represented by a sequence of zero or more characters enclosed within vertical lines (|), analogous to string literals. Any character, including whitespace characters, but excluding the backslash and vertical line characters, can appear verbatim in such an identifier. In addition, characters can be specified using either an inline hex escape or the same escapes available in strings.

For example, the identifier |H\x65;llo| is the same identifier as Hello, and in an implementation that supports the appropriate Unicode character the identifier |\x3BB;| is the same as the identifier λ. What is more, |\t\t| and |\x9;\x9;| are the same. Note that || is a valid identifier that is different from any other identifier.

Here are some examples of identifiers:

...                      {+}
+soup+                   <=?
->string                 a34kTMNs
lambda                   list->vector
q                        V17a
|two words|              |two\x20;words|
the-word-recursion-has-many-meanings

See section [extendedalphas] for the formal syntax of identifiers.

Identifiers have two uses within Scheme programs:

In contrast with earlier revisions of the report , the syntax distinguishes between upper and lower case in identifiers and in characters specified using their names. However, it does not distinguish between upper and lower case in numbers, nor in inline hex escapes used in the syntax of identifiers, characters, or strings. None of the identifiers defined in this report contain upper-case characters, even when they appear to do so as a result of the English-language convention of capitalizing the first word of a sentence.

The following directives give explicit control over case folding.

#!fold-case
#!no-fold-case

These directives can appear anywhere comments are permitted (see section [wscommentsection]) but must be followed by a delimiter. They are treated as comments, except that they affect the reading of subsequent data from the same port. The #!fold-case directive causes subsequent identifiers and character names to be case-folded as if by string-foldcase (see section [stringsection]). It has no effect on character literals. The #!no-fold-case directive causes a return to the default, non-folding behavior.

Whitespace and comments

Whitespace characters include the space, tab, and newline characters. (Implementations may provide additional whitespace characters such as page break.) Whitespace is used for improved readability and as necessary to separate tokens from each other, a token being an indivisible lexical unit such as an identifier or number, but is otherwise insignificant. Whitespace can occur between any two tokens, but not within a token. Whitespace occurring inside a string or inside a symbol delimited by vertical lines is significant.

The lexical syntax includes several comment forms. Comments are treated exactly like whitespace.

A semicolon (;) indicates the start of a line comment. The comment continues to the end of the line on which the semicolon appears.

Another way to indicate a comment is to prefix a datum (cf. section [datumsyntax]) with #; and optional whitespace. The comment consists of the comment prefix #;, the space, and the datum together. This notation is useful for “commenting out” sections of code.

Block comments are indicated with properly nested #| and |# pairs.

#|
The FACT procedure computes the factorial
of a non-negative integer.
|#
(define fact
  (lambda (n)
    (if (= n 0)
        #;(= n 1)
        1        ;Base case: return 1
        (* n (fact (- n 1))))))

Other notations

For a description of the notations used for numbers, see section [numbersection].

Datum labels

#n=datum lexicalsyntax

#n# lexical syntax

The lexical syntax #n=datum reads the same as datum, but also results in datum being labelled by n. It is an error if n is not a sequence of digits.

The lexical syntax #n# serves as a reference to some object labelled by #n=; the result is the same object as the #n= (see section [equivalencesection]).

Together, these syntaxes permit the notation of structures with shared or circular substructure.

(let ((x (list 'a 'b 'c)))
  (set-cdr! (cddr x) x)
  x) ;; => #0=(a b c . #0#)

The scope of a datum label is the portion of the outermost datum in which it appears that is to the right of the label. Consequently, a reference #n# can occur only after a label #n=; it is an error to attempt a forward reference. In addition, it is an error if the reference appears as the labelled object itself (as in #n= #n#), because the object labelled by #n= is not well defined in this case.

It is an error for a program or library to include circular references except in literals. In particular, it is an error for quasiquote (section [quasiquote]) to contain them.

#1=(begin (display #\x) #1#)
;; => error

Basic concepts

Variables, syntactic keywords, and regions

An identifier can name either a type of syntax or a location where a value can be stored. An identifier that names a type of syntax is called a syntactic keyword and is said to be bound to a transformer for that syntax. An identifier that names a location is called a variable and is said to be bound to that location. The set of all visible bindings in effect at some point in a program is known as the environment in effect at that point. The value stored in the location to which a variable is bound is called the variable’s value. By abuse of terminology, the variable is sometimes said to name the value or to be bound to the value. This is not quite accurate, but confusion rarely results from this practice.

Certain expression types are used to create new kinds of syntax and to bind syntactic keywords to those new syntaxes, while other expression types create new locations and bind variables to those locations. These expression types are called binding constructs.

Those that bind syntactic keywords are listed in section [macrosection]. The most fundamental of the variable binding constructs is the lambda expression, because all other variable binding constructs (except top-level bindings) can be explained in terms of lambda expressions. The other variable binding constructs are let, let*, letrec, letrec*, let-values, let*-values, and do expressions (see sections [lambda], [letrec], and [do]).

Scheme is a language with block structure. To each place where an identifier is bound in a program there corresponds a region of the program text within which the binding is visible. The region is determined by the particular binding construct that establishes the binding; if the binding is established by a lambda expression, for example, then its region is the entire lambda expression. Every mention of an identifier refers to the binding of the identifier that established the innermost of the regions containing the use. If there is no binding of the identifier whose region contains the use, then the use refers to the binding for the variable in the global environment, if any (chapters [expressionchapter] and [initialenv]); if there is no binding for the identifier, it is said to be unbound.

Disjointness of types

No object satisfies more than one of the following predicates:

boolean?          bytevector?
char?             eof-object?
null?             number?
pair?             port?
procedure?        string?
symbol?           vector?

and all predicates created by define-record-type.

These predicates define the types boolean, bytevector, character, the empty list object, eof-object, number, pair, port, procedure, string, symbol, vector, and all record types.

Although there is a separate boolean type, any Scheme value can be used as a boolean value for the purpose of a conditional test. As explained in section [booleansection], all values count as true in such a test except for #f. This report uses the word “true” to refer to any Scheme value except #f, and the word “false” to refer to #f.

External representations

An important concept in Scheme (and Lisp) is that of the external representation of an object as a sequence of characters. For example, an external representation of the integer 28 is the sequence of characters “28”, and an external representation of a list consisting of the integers 8 and 13 is the sequence of characters “(8 13)”.

The external representation of an object is not necessarily unique. The integer 28 also has representations “#e28.000” and “#x1c”, and the list in the previous paragraph also has the representations “( 08 13 )” and “(8 . (13 . ()))” (see section [listsection]).

Many objects have standard external representations, but some, such as procedures, do not have standard representations (although particular implementations may define representations for them).

An external representation can be written in a program to obtain the corresponding object (see quote, section [quote]).

External representations can also be used for input and output. The procedure read (section [read]) parses external representations, and the procedure write (section [write]) generates them. Together, they provide an elegant and powerful input/output facility.

Note that the sequence of characters “(+ 2 6)” is not an external representation of the integer 8, even though it is an expression evaluating to the integer 8; rather, it is an external representation of a three-element list, the elements of which are the symbol + and the integers 2 and 6. Scheme’s syntax has the property that any sequence of characters that is an expression is also the external representation of some object. This can lead to confusion, since it is not always obvious out of context whether a given sequence of characters is intended to denote data or program, but it is also a source of power, since it facilitates writing programs such as interpreters and compilers that treat programs as data (or vice versa).

The syntax of external representations of various kinds of objects accompanies the description of the primitives for manipulating the objects in the appropriate sections of chapter [initialenv].

Storage model

Variables and objects such as pairs, strings, vectors, and bytevectors implicitly denote locations or sequences of locations. A string, for example, denotes as many locations as there are characters in the string. A new value can be stored into one of these locations using the string-set! procedure, but the string continues to denote the same locations as before.

An object fetched from a location, by a variable reference or by a procedure such as car, vector-ref, or string-ref, is equivalent in the sense of eqv? (section [equivalencesection]) to the object last stored in the location before the fetch.

Every location is marked to show whether it is in use. No variable or object ever refers to a location that is not in use.

Whenever this report speaks of storage being newly allocated for a variable or object, what is meant is that an appropriate number of locations are chosen from the set of locations that are not in use, and the chosen locations are marked to indicate that they are now in use before the variable or object is made to denote them. Notwithstanding this, it is understood that the empty list cannot be newly allocated, because it is a unique object. It is also understood that empty strings, empty vectors, and empty bytevectors, which contain no locations, may or may not be newly allocated.

Every object that denotes locations is either mutable or immutable. Literal constants, the strings returned by symbol->string, and possibly the environment returned by scheme-report-environment are immutable objects. All objects created by the other procedures listed in this report are mutable. It is an error to attempt to store a new value into a location that is denoted by an immutable object.

These locations are to be understood as conceptual, not physical. Hence, they do not necessarily correspond to memory addresses, and even if they do, the memory address might not be constant.

Rationale: In many systems it is desirable for constants (i.e. the values of literal expressions) to reside in read-only memory. Making it an error to alter constants permits this implementation strategy, while not requiring other systems to distinguish between mutable and immutable objects.

Proper tail recursion

Implementations of Scheme are required to be properly tail-recursive. Procedure calls that occur in certain syntactic contexts defined below are tail calls. A Scheme implementation is properly tail-recursive if it supports an unbounded number of active tail calls. A call is active if the called procedure might still return. Note that this includes calls that might be returned from either by the current continuation or by continuations captured earlier by call-with-current-continuation that are later invoked. In the absence of captured continuations, calls could return at most once and the active calls would be those that had not yet returned. A formal definition of proper tail recursion can be found in .

Rationale:

Intuitively, no space is needed for an active tail call because the continuation that is used in the tail call has the same semantics as the continuation passed to the procedure containing the call. Although an improper implementation might use a new continuation in the call, a return to this new continuation would be followed immediately by a return to the continuation passed to the procedure. A properly tail-recursive implementation returns to that continuation directly.

Proper tail recursion was one of the central ideas in Steele and Sussman’s original version of Scheme. Their first Scheme interpreter implemented both functions and actors. Control flow was expressed using actors, which differed from functions in that they passed their results on to another actor instead of returning to a caller. In the terminology of this section, each actor finished with a tail call to another actor.

Steele and Sussman later observed that in their interpreter the code for dealing with actors was identical to that for functions and thus there was no need to include both in the language.

A tail call is a procedure call that occurs in a tail context. Tail contexts are defined inductively. Note that a tail context is always determined with respect to a particular lambda expression.

where

cond clause   (test tail sequence)
case clause   ((datum) tail sequence)
tail body   definition tail sequence
tail sequence   expression tail expression

Certain procedures defined in this report are also required to perform tail calls. The first argument passed to apply and to call-with-current-continuation, and the second argument passed to call-with-values, must be called via a tail call. Similarly, eval must evaluate its first argument as if it were in tail position within the eval procedure.

In the following example the only tail call is the call to f. None of the calls to g or h are tail calls. The reference to x is in a tail context, but it is not a call and thus is not a tail call.

(lambda ()
  (if (g)
      (let ((x (h)))
        x)
      (and (g) (f))))

Note: Implementations may recognize that some non-tail calls, such as the call to h above, can be evaluated as though they were tail calls. In the example above, the let expression could be compiled as a tail call to h. (The possibility of h returning an unexpected number of values can be ignored, because in that case the effect of the let is explicitly unspecified and implementation-dependent.)

Expressions

Expression types are categorized as primitive or derived. Primitive expression types include variables and procedure calls. Derived expression types are not semantically primitive, but can instead be defined as macros. Suitable syntax definitions of some of the derived expressions are given in section [derivedsection].

The procedures force, promise?, make-promise, and make-parameter are also described in this chapter because they are intimately associated with the delay, delay-force, and parameterize expression types.

Primitive expression types

Variable references

variable  syntax An expression consisting of a variable (section [variablesection]) is a variable reference. The value of the variable reference is the value stored in the location to which the variable is bound. It is an error to reference an unbound variable.

(define x 28)
x ;; => 28

Literal expressions

(quote datum)  syntax datum  syntax constant  syntax (quote datum) evaluates to datum. Datum can be any external representation of a Scheme object (see section [externalreps]). This notation is used to include literal constants in Scheme code.

(quote a) ;; => a
(quote #(a b c)) ;; => #(a b c)
(quote (+ 1 2)) ;; => (+ 1 2)

(quote datum) can be abbreviated as datum. The two notations are equivalent in all respects.

'a ;; => a
'#(a b c) ;; => #(a b c)
'() ;; => ()
'(+ 1 2) ;; => (+ 1 2)
'(quote a) ;; => (quote a)
''a ;; => (quote a)

Numerical constants, string constants, character constants, vector constants, bytevector constants, and boolean constants evaluate to themselves; they need not be quoted.

'145932 ;; => 145932
145932 ;; => 145932
'"abc" ;; => "abc"
"abc" ;; => "abc"
'#\a ;; => #\a
#\a ;; => #\a
'#(a 10) ;; => #(a 10)
#(a 10) ;; => #(a 10)
'#u8(64 65) ;; => #u8(64 65)
#u8(64 65) ;; => #u8(64 65)
'#t ;; => #t
#t ;; => #t

As noted in section [storagemodel], it is an error to attempt to alter a constant (i.e. the value of a literal expression) using a mutation procedure like set-car! or string-set!.

Procedure calls

(operator operand1 … )  syntax A procedure call is written by enclosing in parentheses an expression for the procedure to be called followed by expressions for the arguments to be passed to it. The operator and operand expressions are evaluated (in an unspecified order) and the resulting procedure is passed the resulting arguments.

(+ 3 4) ;; => 7
((if #f + *) 3 4) ;; => 12

The procedures in this document are available as the values of variables exported by the standard libraries. For example, the addition and multiplication procedures in the above examples are the values of the variables + and * in the base library. New procedures are created by evaluating lambda expressions (see section [lambda]).

Procedure calls can return any number of values (see values in section [proceduresection]). Most of the procedures defined in this report return one value or, for procedures such as apply, pass on the values returned by a call to one of their arguments. Exceptions are noted in the individual descriptions.

Note: In contrast to other dialects of Lisp, the order of evaluation is unspecified, and the operator expression and the operand expressions are always evaluated with the same evaluation rules.

Note: Although the order of evaluation is otherwise unspecified, the effect of any concurrent evaluation of the operator and operand expressions is constrained to be consistent with some sequential order of evaluation. The order of evaluation may be chosen differently for each procedure call.

Note: In many dialects of Lisp, the empty list, (), is a legitimate expression evaluating to itself. In Scheme, it is an error.

Procedures

(lambda formals body)  syntax Syntax: Formals is a formal arguments list as described below, and body is a sequence of zero or more definitions followed by one or more expressions.

Semantics: A lambda expression evaluates to a procedure. The environment in effect when the lambda expression was evaluated is remembered as part of the procedure. When the procedure is later called with some actual arguments, the environment in which the lambda expression was evaluated will be extended by binding the variables in the formal argument list to fresh locations, and the corresponding actual argument values will be stored in those locations. (A fresh location is one that is distinct from every previously existing location.) Next, the expressions in the body of the lambda expression (which, if it contains definitions, represents a letrec* form — see section [letrecstar]) will be evaluated sequentially in the extended environment. The results of the last expression in the body will be returned as the results of the procedure call.

(lambda (x) (+ x x)) ;; => a procedure
((lambda (x) (+ x x)) 4) ;; => 8

(define reverse-subtract
  (lambda (x y) (- y x)))
(reverse-subtract 7 10) ;; => 3

(define add4
  (let ((x 4))
    (lambda (y) (+ x y))))
(add4 6) ;; => 10

Formals have one of the following forms:

It is an error for a variable to appear more than once in formals.

((lambda x x) 3 4 5 6) ;; => (3 4 5 6)
((lambda (x y . z) z) 3 4 5 6) ;; => (5 6)

Each procedure created as the result of evaluating a lambda expression is (conceptually) tagged with a storage location, in order to make eqv? and eq? work on procedures (see section [equivalencesection]).

Conditionals

(if test consequent alternate) syntax

(if test consequent) syntax

Syntax: Test, consequent, and alternate are expressions.

Semantics: An if expression is evaluated as follows: first, test is evaluated. If it yields a true value (see section [booleansection]), then consequent is evaluated and its values are returned. Otherwise alternate is evaluated and its values are returned. If test yields a false value and no alternate is specified, then the result of the expression is unspecified.

(if (> 3 2) 'yes 'no) ;; => yes
(if (> 2 3) 'yes 'no) ;; => no
(if (> 3 2)
    (- 3 2)
    (+ 3 2)) ;; => 1

Assignments

(set! variable expression) syntax

Semantics: Expression is evaluated, and the resulting value is stored in the location to which variable is bound. It is an error if variable is not bound either in some region enclosing the set! expression or else globally. The result of the set! expression is unspecified.

(define x 2)
(+ x 1) ;; => 3
(set! x 4) ;; => unspecified
(+ x 1) ;; => 5

Inclusion

(include string ...) syntax

(include-ci sitring ... *) syntax

Semantics: Both include and include-ci take one or more filenames expressed as string literals, apply an implementation-specific algorithm to find corresponding files, read the contents of the files in the specified order as if by repeated applications of read, and effectively replace the include or include-ci expression with a begin expression containing what was read from the files. The difference between the two is that include-ci reads each file as if it began with the #!fold-case directive, while include does not.

Note: Implementations are encouraged to search for files in the directory which contains the including file, and to provide a way for users to specify other directories to search.

Derived expression types

The constructs in this section are hygienic, as discussed in section [macrosection]. For reference purposes, section [derivedsection] gives syntax definitions that will convert most of the constructs described in this section into the primitive constructs described in the previous section.

Conditionals

(cond clause ... ) syntax

else auxiliary syntax

=> auxiliary syntax

Syntax: Clauses take one of two forms, either

(<test> <expression> ...)

where test is any expression, or

(<test> => <expression>)

The last clause can be an “else clause,” which has the form

(else <expression> <expression> ...)

Semantics: A cond expression is evaluated by evaluating the test expressions of successive clauses in order until one of them evaluates to a true value (see section [booleansection]). When a test evaluates to a true value, the remaining expressions in its clause are evaluated in order, and the results of the last expression in the clause are returned as the results of the entire cond expression.

If the selected clause contains only the test and no expressions, then the value of the test is returned as the result. If the selected clause uses the => alternate form, then the expression is evaluated. It is an error if its value is not a procedure that accepts one argument. This procedure is then called on the value of the test and the values returned by this procedure are returned by the cond expression.

If all tests evaluate to #f, and there is no else clause, then the result of the conditional expression is unspecified; if there is an else clause, then its expressions are evaluated in order, and the values of the last one are returned.

(cond ((> 3 2) 'greater)
      ((< 3 2) 'less)) ;; => greater

(cond ((> 3 3) 'greater)
      ((< 3 3) 'less)
      (else 'equal)) ;; => equal

(cond ((assv 'b '((a 1) (b 2))) => cadr)
      (else #f)) ;; => 2

(case key clause ...) syntax

Syntax: Key can be any expression. Each clause has the form

((<datum> ...) <expression> <expression> ...)

where each datum is an external representation of some object. It is an error if any of the datums are the same anywhere in the expression. Alternatively, a clause can be of the form

((<datum> ...) => <expression>)

The last clause can be an “else clause,” which has one of the forms

(else <expression> <expression> ...)

or

(else => <expression>)

Semantics: A case expression is evaluated as follows. Key is evaluated and its result is compared against each datum. If the result of evaluating key is the same (in the sense of eqv?; see section [eqv?]) to a datum, then the expressions in the corresponding clause are evaluated in order and the results of the last expression in the clause are returned as the results of the case expression.

If the result of evaluating key is different from every datum, then if there is an else clause, its expressions are evaluated and the results of the last are the results of the case expression; otherwise the result of the case expression is unspecified.

If the selected clause or else clause uses the => alternate form, then the expression is evaluated. It is an error if its value is not a procedure accepting one argument. This procedure is then called on the value of the key and the values returned by this procedure are returned by the case expression.

(case (* 2 3)
  ((2 3 5 7) 'prime)
  ((1 4 6 8 9) 'composite)) ;; => composite
(case (car '(c d))
  ((a) 'a)
  ((b) 'b)) ;; => unspecified
(case (car '(c d))
  ((a e i o u) 'vowel)
  ((w y) 'semivowel)
  (else => (lambda (x) x))) ;; => c

(and test ... *) syntax

Semantics: The test expressions are evaluated from left to right, and if any expression evaluates to #f (see section [booleansection]), then #f is returned. Any remaining expressions are not evaluated. If all the expressions evaluate to true values, the values of the last expression are returned. If there are no expressions, then #t is returned.

(and (= 2 2) (> 2 1)) ;; => #t
(and (= 2 2) (< 2 1)) ;; => #f
(and 1 2 'c '(f g)) ;; => (f g)
(and) ;; => #t

(or test .... *) syntax

Semantics: The test expressions are evaluated from left to right, and the value of the first expression that evaluates to a true value (see section [booleansection]) is returned. Any remaining expressions are not evaluated. If all expressions evaluate to #f or if there are no expressions, then #f is returned.

(or (= 2 2) (> 2 1)) ;; => #t
(or (= 2 2) (< 2 1)) ;; => #t
(or #f #f #f) ;; => #f
(or (memq 'b '(a b c))
    (/ 3 0)) ;; => (b c)

(when test expression ...) syntax

Syntax: The test is an expression.

Semantics: The test is evaluated, and if it evaluates to a true value, the expressions are evaluated in order. The result of the when expression is unspecified.

(when (= 1 1.0)
  (display "1")
  (display "2")) ;; => unspecified
;; and prints 12

`(unless test expression ...) syntax

Syntax: The test is an expression.

Semantics: The test is evaluated, and if it evaluates to #f, the expressions are evaluated in order. The result of the unless expression is unspecified.

(unless (= 1 1.0)
  (display "1")
  (display "2")) ;; => unspecified
;; and prints nothing

(cond-expand ce-clause ...) syntax

Syntax: The cond-expand expression type provides a way to statically expand different expressions depending on the implementation. A ce-clause takes the following form:

(feature requirement expression ...)

The last clause can be an “else clause,” which has the form

(else expression ...)

A feature requirement takes one of the following forms:

Semantics: Each implementation maintains a list of feature identifiers which are present, as well as a list of libraries which can be imported. The value of a feature requirement is determined by replacing each feature identifier and (library library name) on the implementation’s lists with #t, and all other feature identifiers and library names with #f, then evaluating the resulting expression as a Scheme boolean expression under the normal interpretation of and, or, and not.

A cond-expand is then expanded by evaluating the feature requirements of successive ce-clauses in order until one of them returns #t. When a true clause is found, the corresponding expressions are expanded to a begin, and the remaining clauses are ignored. If none of the feature requirements evaluate to #t, then if there is an else clause, its expressions are included. Otherwise, the behavior of the cond-expand is unspecified. Unlike cond, cond-expand does not depend on the value of any variables.

The exact features provided are implementation-defined, but for portability a core set of features is given in appendix [stdfeatures].

Binding constructs

The binding constructs let, let*, letrec, letrec*, let-values, and let*-values give Scheme a block structure, like Algol 60. The syntax of the first four constructs is identical, but they differ in the regions they establish for their variable bindings. In a let expression, the initial values are computed before any of the variables become bound; in a let* expression, the bindings and evaluations are performed sequentially; while in letrec and letrec* expressions, all the bindings are in effect while their initial values are being computed, thus allowing mutually recursive definitions. The let-values and let*-values constructs are analogous to let and let* respectively, but are designed to handle multiple-valued expressions, binding different identifiers to the returned values.

(let bindings body) syntax

Syntax: Bindings has the form

((<variable> <init>) ...)

where each init is an expression, and body is a sequence of zero or more definitions followed by a sequence of one or more expressions as described in section [lambda]. It is an error for a variable to appear more than once in the list of variables being bound.

Semantics: The inits are evaluated in the current environment (in some unspecified order), the variables are bound to fresh locations holding the results, the body is evaluated in the extended environment, and the values of the last expression of body are returned. Each binding of a variable has body as its region.

(let ((x 2) (y 3))
  (* x y)) ;; => 6

(let ((x 2) (y 3))
  (let ((x 7)
        (z (+ x y)))
    (* z x))) ;; => 35

See also “named let,” section [namedlet].

(let* bindings body) syntax

Syntax: Bindings has the form

((<variable> <init>) ...)

and body is a sequence of zero or more definitions followed by one or more expressions as described in section [lambda].

Semantics: The let* binding construct is similar to let, but the bindings are performed sequentially from left to right, and the region of a binding indicated by (variable init) is that part of the let* expression to the right of the binding. Thus the second binding is done in an environment in which the first binding is visible, and so on. The variables need not be distinct.

(let ((x 2) (y 3))
  (let* ((x 7)
         (z (+ x y)))
    (* z x))) ;; => 70

(letrec bindings body) syntax

Syntax: Bindings has the form

((<variable> <init>) ...)

and body is a sequence of zero or more definitions followed by one or more expressions as described in section [lambda]. It is an error for a variable to appear more than once in the list of variables being bound.

Semantics: The variables are bound to fresh locations holding unspecified values, the inits are evaluated in the resulting environment (in some unspecified order), each variable is assigned to the result of the corresponding init, the body is evaluated in the resulting environment, and the values of the last expression in body are returned. Each binding of a variable has the entire letrec expression as its region, making it possible to define mutually recursive procedures.

(letrec ((even?
          (lambda (n)
            (if (zero? n)
                #t
                (odd? (- n 1)))))
         (odd?
          (lambda (n)
            (if (zero? n)
                #f
                (even? (- n 1))))))
  (even? 88))
;; => #t

One restriction on letrec is very important: if it is not possible to evaluate each init without assigning or referring to the value of any variable, it is an error. The restriction is necessary because letrec is defined in terms of a procedure call where a lambda expression binds the variables to the values of the inits. In the most common uses of letrec, all the inits are lambda expressions and the restriction is satisfied automatically.

(letrec* bindings body) syntax

Syntax: Bindings has the form

((<variable> <init>) ...)

and body is a sequence of zero or more definitions followed by one or more expressions as described in section [lambda]. It is an error for a variable to appear more than once in the list of variables being bound.

Semantics: The variables are bound to fresh locations, each variable is assigned in left-to-right order to the result of evaluating the corresponding init (interleaving evaluations and assignments), the body is evaluated in the resulting environment, and the values of the last expression in body are returned. Despite the left-to-right evaluation and assignment order, each binding of a variable has the entire letrec* expression as its region, making it possible to define mutually recursive procedures.

If it is not possible to evaluate each init without assigning or referring to the value of the corresponding variable or the variable of any of the bindings that follow it in bindings, it is an error. Another restriction is that it is an error to invoke the continuation of an init more than once.

;; Returns the arithmetic, geometric, and
;; harmonic means of a nested list of numbers
(define (means ton)
  (letrec*
      ((mean
        (lambda (f g)
          (f (/ (sum g ton) n))))
       (sum
        (lambda (g ton)
          (if (null? ton)
              (+)
              (if (number? ton)
                  (g ton)
                  (+ (sum g (car ton))
                     (sum g (cdr ton)))))))
       (n (sum (lambda (x) 1) ton)))
    (values (mean values values)
            (mean exp log)
            (mean / /))))

Evaluating (means ’(3 (1 4))) returns three values: 8/3, 2.28942848510666 (approximately), and 36/19.

(let-values mv binding spec body) syntax

Syntax: Mv binding spec has the form

((<formals> <init>) ...)

where each init is an expression, and body is zero or more definitions followed by a sequence of one or more expressions as described in section [lambda]. It is an error for a variable to appear more than once in the set of formals.

Semantics: The inits are evaluated in the current environment (in some unspecified order) as if by invoking call-with-values, and the variables occurring in the formals are bound to fresh locations holding the values returned by the inits, where the formals are matched to the return values in the same way that the formals in a lambda expression are matched to the arguments in a procedure call. Then, the body is evaluated in the extended environment, and the values of the last expression of body are returned. Each binding of a variable has body as its region.

It is an error if the formals do not match the number of values returned by the corresponding init.

(let-values (((root rem) (exact-integer-sqrt 32)))
  (* root rem)) ;; => 35

(let*-values mv binding spec body) syntax

Syntax: Mv binding spec has the form

((<formals> <init>) ...)

and body is a sequence of zero or more definitions followed by one or more expressions as described in section [lambda]. In each formals, it is an error if any variable appears more than once.

Semantics: The let*-values construct is similar to let-values, but the inits are evaluated and bindings created sequentially from left to right, with the region of the bindings of each formals including the inits to its right as well as body. Thus the second init is evaluated in an environment in which the first set of bindings is visible and initialized, and so on.

(let ((a 'a) (b 'b) (x 'x) (y 'y))
  (let*-values (((a b) (values x y))
                ((x y) (values a b)))
    (list a b x y))) ;; => (x y x y)

Sequencing

Both of Scheme’s sequencing constructs are named begin, but the two have slightly different forms and uses:

(begin expression-or-definition ...) syntax

This form of begin can appear as part of a body, or at the outermost level of a program, or at the REPL, or directly nested in a begin that is itself of this form. It causes the contained expressions and definitions to be evaluated exactly as if the enclosing begin construct were not present.

Rationale: This form is commonly used in the output of macros (see section [macrosection]) which need to generate multiple definitions and splice them into the context in which they are expanded.

(begin expression ...) syntax

This form of begin can be used as an ordinary expression. The expressions are evaluated sequentially from left to right, and the values of the last expression are returned. This expression type is used to sequence side effects such as assignments or input and output.

(define x 0)

(and (= x 0)
     (begin (set! x 5)
            (+ x 1))) ;; => 6

(begin (display "4 plus 1 equals ")
       (display (+ 4 1))) ;; => unspecified
;; and prints 4 plus 1 equals 5

Note that there is a third form of begin used as a library declaration: see section [librarydeclarations].

Iteration

(do ((variable<sub>1</sub> init<sub>1</sub> step<sub>1</sub>) ...) (test expression ...) command ...) syntax

Syntax: All of init, step, test, and command are expressions.

Semantics: A do expression is an iteration construct. It specifies a set of variables to be bound, how they are to be initialized at the start, and how they are to be updated on each iteration. When a termination condition is met, the loop exits after evaluating the expressions.

A do expression is evaluated as follows: The init expressions are evaluated (in some unspecified order), the variables are bound to fresh locations, the results of the init expressions are stored in the bindings of the variables, and then the iteration phase begins.

Each iteration begins by evaluating test; if the result is false (see section [booleansection]), then the command expressions are evaluated in order for effect, the step expressions are evaluated in some unspecified order, the variables are bound to fresh locations, the results of the steps are stored in the bindings of the variables, and the next iteration begins.

If test evaluates to a true value, then the expressions are evaluated from left to right and the values of the last expression are returned. If no expressions are present, then the value of the do expression is unspecified.

The region of the binding of a variable consists of the entire do expression except for the inits. It is an error for a variable to appear more than once in the list of do variables.

A step can be omitted, in which case the effect is the same as if (variable init variable) had been written instead of (variable init).

(do ((vec (make-vector 5))
     (i 0 (+ i 1)))
    ((= i 5) vec)
  (vector-set! vec i i)) ;; => #(0 1 2 3 4)

(let ((x '(1 3 5 7 9)))
  (do ((x x (cdr x))
       (sum 0 (+ sum (car x))))
      ((null? x) sum))) ;; => 25

(let bindings body ...) syntax

Semantics: “Named let” is a variant on the syntax of let which provides a more general looping construct than do and can also be used to express recursion. It has the same syntax and semantics as ordinary let except that variable is bound within body to a procedure whose formal arguments are the bound variables and whose body is body. Thus the execution of body can be repeated by invoking the procedure named by variable.

(let loop ((numbers '(3 -2 1 6 -5))
           (nonneg '())
           (neg '()))
  (cond ((null? numbers) (list nonneg neg))
        ((>= (car numbers) 0)
         (loop (cdr numbers)
               (cons (car numbers) nonneg)
               neg))
        ((< (car numbers) 0)
         (loop (cdr numbers)
               nonneg
               (cons (car numbers) neg)))))
;; => ((6 1 3) (-5 -2))

Delayed evaluation

(delay expression) lazy library syntax

Semantics: The delay construct is used together with the procedure force to implement lazy evaluation or call by need. (delay expression) returns an object called a promise which at some point in the future can be asked (by the force procedure) to evaluate expression, and deliver the resulting value.

The effect of expression returning multiple values is unspecified.

(delay-force expression) lazy library syntax

Semantics: The expression (delay-force *expression*) is conceptually similar to (delay (force *expression*)), with the difference that forcing the result of delay-force will in effect result in a tail call to (force *expression*), while forcing the result of (delay (force *expression*)) might not. Thus iterative lazy algorithms that might result in a long series of chains of delay and force can be rewritten using delay-force to prevent consuming unbounded space during evaluation.

(force *promise*) lazy library procedure

The force procedure forces the value of a promise created by delay, delay-force, or make-promise. If no value has been computed for the promise, then a value is computed and returned. The value of the promise must be cached (or “memoized”) so that if it is forced a second time, the previously computed value is returned. Consequently, a delayed expression is evaluated using the parameter values and exception handler of the call to force which first requested its value. If promise is not a promise, it may be returned unchanged.

(force (delay (+ 1 2))) ;; => 3
(let ((p (delay (+ 1 2))))
  (list (force p) (force p)))
;; => (3 3)

(define integers
  (letrec ((next
            (lambda (n)
              (delay (cons n (next (+ n 1)))))))
    (next 0)))
(define head
  (lambda (stream) (car (force stream))))
(define tail
  (lambda (stream) (cdr (force stream))))

(head (tail (tail integers)))
;; => 2

The following example is a mechanical transformation of a lazy stream-filtering algorithm into Scheme. Each call to a constructor is wrapped in delay, and each argument passed to a deconstructor is wrapped in force. The use of (delay-force ...) instead of (delay (force ...)) around the body of the procedure ensures that an ever-growing sequence of pending promises does not exhaust available storage, because force will in effect force such sequences iteratively.

(define (stream-filter p? s)
  (delay-force
   (if (null? (force s))
       (delay '())
       (let ((h (car (force s)))
             (t (cdr (force s))))
         (if (p? h)
             (delay (cons h (stream-filter p? t)))
             (stream-filter p? t))))))

(head (tail (tail (stream-filter odd? integers))))
;; => 5

The following examples are not intended to illustrate good programming style, as delay, force, and delay-force are mainly intended for programs written in the functional style. However, they do illustrate the property that only one value is computed for a promise, no matter how many times it is forced.

(define count 0)
(define p
  (delay (begin (set! count (+ count 1))
                (if (> count x)
                    count
                    (force p)))))
(define x 5)
p ;; => a promise
(force p) ;; => 6
p ;; => a promise, still
(begin (set! x 10)
       (force p)) ;; => 6

Various extensions to this semantics of delay, force and delay-force are supported in some implementations:

(promise? obj) lazy library procedure

The promise? procedure returns #t if its argument is a promise, and #f otherwise. Note that promises are not necessarily disjoint from other Scheme types such as procedures.

(make-promise obj) lazy library procedure

The make-promise procedure returns a promise which, when forced, will return obj. It is similar to delay, but does not delay its argument: it is a procedure rather than syntax. If obj is already a promise, it is returned.

Dynamic bindings

The dynamic extent of a procedure call is the time between when it is initiated and when it returns. In Scheme, call-with-current-continuation (section [continuations]) allows reentering a dynamic extent after its procedure call has returned. Thus, the dynamic extent of a call might not be a single, continuous time period.

This sections introduces parameter objects, which can be bound to new values for the duration of a dynamic extent. The set of all parameter bindings at a given time is called the dynamic environment.

(make-parameter init) procedure

(make-parameter init converter) procedure

Returns a newly allocated parameter object, which is a procedure that accepts zero arguments and returns the value associated with the parameter object. Initially, this value is the value of (converter init), or of init if the conversion procedure converter is not specified. The associated value can be temporarily changed using parameterize, which is described below.

The effect of passing arguments to a parameter object is implementation-dependent.

(parameterize ((param value) ...)) syntax

Syntax: Both param and value are expressions.

It is an error if the value of any param expression is not a parameter object.

Semantics: A parameterize expression is used to change the values returned by specified parameter objects during the evaluation of the body.

The param and value expressions are evaluated in an unspecified order. The body is evaluated in a dynamic environment in which calls to the parameters return the results of passing the corresponding values to the conversion procedure specified when the parameters were created. Then the previous values of the parameters are restored without passing them to the conversion procedure. The results of the last expression in the body are returned as the results of the entire parameterize expression.

Note: If the conversion procedure is not idempotent, the results of (parameterize ((x (x))) ...), which appears to bind the parameter x to its current value, might not be what the user expects.

If an implementation supports multiple threads of execution, then parameterize must not change the associated values of any parameters in any thread other than the current thread and threads created inside body.

Parameter objects can be used to specify configurable settings for a computation without the need to pass the value to every procedure in the call chain explicitly.

(define radix
  (make-parameter
   10
   (lambda (x)
     (if (and (exact-integer? x) (<= 2 x 16))
         x
         (error "invalid radix")))))

(define (f n) (number->string n (radix)))

(f 12) ;; => "12"
(parameterize ((radix 2))
  (f 12)) ;; => "1100"
(f 12) ;; => "12"

(radix 16) ;; => unspecified

(parameterize ((radix 0))
  (f 12)) ;; => error

Exception handling

(guard (variable cond_clause ...) express ...)` syntax

Syntax: Each cond_clause is as in the specification of cond.

Semantics: The body is evaluated with an exception handler that binds the raised object (see raise in section [exceptionsection]) to variable and, within the scope of that binding, evaluates the clauses as if they were the clauses of a cond expression. That implicit cond expression is evaluated with the continuation and dynamic environment of the guard expression. If every cond clause’s test evaluates to #f and there is no else clause, then raise-continuable is invoked on the raised object within the dynamic environment of the original call to raise or raise-continuable, except that the current exception handler is that of the guard expression.

See section [exceptionsection] for a more complete discussion of exceptions.

(guard (condition
        ((assq 'a condition) => cdr)
        ((assq 'b condition)))
       (raise (list (cons 'a 42))))
;; => 42

(guard (condition
        ((assq 'a condition) => cdr)
        ((assq 'b condition)))
       (raise (list (cons 'b 23))))
;; => (b . 23)

Quasiquotation

(quasiquote qq template) syntax

qq_template syntax

unquote auxiliary syntax

' auxiliary syntax

unquote-splicing auxiliary syntax

` auxiliary syntax

“Quasiquote” expressions are useful for constructing a list or vector structure when some but not all of the desired structure is known in advance. If no commas appear within the qq template, the result of evaluating `qq template is equivalent to the result of evaluatingqq template. If a comma appears within the qq template, however, the expression following the comma is evaluated (“unquoted”) and its result is inserted into the structure instead of the comma and the expression. If a comma appears followed without intervening whitespace by a commercial at-sign ('`), then it is an error if the following expression does not evaluate to a list; the opening and closing parentheses of the list are then “stripped away” and the elements of the list are inserted in place of the comma at-sign expression sequence. A comma at-sign normally appears only within a list or vector qq template.

Note: In order to unquote an identifier beginning with @, it is necessary to use either an explicit unquote or to put whitespace after the comma, to avoid colliding with the comma at-sign sequence.

`(list ,(+ 1 2) 4) ;; => (list 3 4)
(let ((name 'a)) `(list ,name ',name))
;; => (list a (quote a))
`(a ,(+ 1 2) ,@(map abs '(4 -5 6)) b)
;; => (a 3 4 5 6 b)
`((foo ,(- 10 3)) ,@(cdr '(c)) . ,(car '(cons)))
;; => ((foo 7) . cons)
`#(10 5 ,(sqrt 4) ,@(map sqrt '(16 9)) 8)
;; => #(10 5 2 4 3 8)
(let ((foo '(foo bar)) (@baz 'baz))
  `(list ,@foo , @baz))
;; => (list foo bar baz)

Quasiquote expressions can be nested. Substitutions are made only for unquoted components appearing at the same nesting level as the outermost quasiquote. The nesting level increases by one inside each successive quasiquotation, and decreases by one inside each unquotation.

`(a `(b ,(+ 1 2) ,(foo ,(+ 1 3) d) e) f)
;; => (a `(b ,(+ 1 2) ,(foo 4 d) e) f)
(let ((name1 'x)
      (name2 'y))
  `(a `(b ,,name1 ,',name2 d) e))
;; => (a `(b ,x ,'y d) e)

A quasiquote expression may return either newly allocated, mutable objects or literal structure for any structure that is constructed at run time during the evaluation of the expression. Portions that do not need to be rebuilt are always literal. Thus,

(let ((a 3)) `((1 2) ,a ,4 ,'five 6))

may be treated as equivalent to either of the following expressions:

`((1 2) 3 4 five 6)

(let ((a 3))
  (cons '(1 2)
        (cons a (cons 4 (cons 'five '(6))))))

However, it is not equivalent to this expression:

(let ((a 3)) (list (list 1 2) a 4 'five 6))

The two notations `qq template and(quasiquote qq template)are identical in all respects. ,expression is identical to (unquote expression), and ,@expression is identical to (unquote-splicing expression). Thewrite` procedure may output either format.

(quasiquote (list (unquote (+ 1 2)) 4))
;; => (list 3 4)
'(quasiquote (list (unquote (+ 1 2)) 4))
;; => `(list ,(+ 1 2) 4)
;; i.e., (quasiquote (list (unquote (+ 1 2)) 4))

It is an error if any of the identifiers quasiquote, unquote, or unquote-splicing appear in positions within a qq template otherwise than as described above.

Case-lambda

(case-lambda clause ...) case-lambda library syntax

Syntax: Each clause is of the form (formals body), where formals and body have the same syntax as in a lambda expression.

Semantics: A case-lambda expression evaluates to a procedure that accepts a variable number of arguments and is lexically scoped in the same manner as a procedure resulting from a lambda expression. When the procedure is called, the first clause for which the arguments agree with formals is selected, where agreement is specified as for the formals of a lambda expression. The variables of formals are bound to fresh locations, the values of the arguments are stored in those locations, the body is evaluated in the extended environment, and the results of body are returned as the results of the procedure call.

It is an error for the arguments not to agree with the formals of any clause.

(define range
  (case-lambda
   ((e) (range 0 e))
   ((b e) (do ((r '() (cons e r))
               (e (- e 1) (- e 1)))
              ((< e b) r)))))

(range 3) ;; => (0 1 2)
(range 3 5) ;; => (3 4)

Macros

Scheme programs can define and use new derived expression types, called macros. Program-defined expression types have the syntax

(<keyword> <datum> ...)

where keyword is an identifier that uniquely determines the expression type. This identifier is called the syntactic keyword, or simply keyword, of the macro. The number of the datums, and their syntax, depends on the expression type.

Each instance of a macro is called a use of the macro. The set of rules that specifies how a use of a macro is transcribed into a more primitive expression is called the transformer of the macro.

The macro definition facility consists of two parts:

The syntactic keyword of a macro can shadow variable bindings, and local variable bindings can shadow syntactic bindings. Two mechanisms are provided to prevent unintended conflicts:

In consequence, all macros defined using the pattern language are “hygienic” and “referentially transparent” and thus preserve Scheme’s lexical scoping. 

Implementations may provide macro facilities of other types.

Binding constructs for syntactic keywords

The let-syntax and letrec-syntax binding constructs are analogous to let and letrec, but they bind syntactic keywords to macro transformers instead of binding variables to locations that contain values. Syntactic keywords can also be bound globally or locally with define-syntax; see section [define-syntax].

(let-syntax bindings body) syntax

Syntax: Bindings has the form

((<keyword> <transformer-spec>) ...)

Each keyword is an identifier, each transformer spec is an instance of syntax-rules, and body is a sequence of zero or more definitions followed by one or more expressions. It is an error for a keyword to appear more than once in the list of keywords being bound.

Semantics: The body is expanded in the syntactic environment obtained by extending the syntactic environment of the let-syntax expression with macros whose keywords are the keywords, bound to the specified transformers. Each binding of a keyword has body as its region.

(let-syntax ((given-that (syntax-rules ()
                           ((given-that test stmt1 stmt2 ...)
                            (if test
                                (begin stmt1
                                       stmt2 ...))))))
  (let ((if #t))
    (given-that if (set! if 'now))
    if)) ;; => now

(let ((x 'outer))
  (let-syntax ((m (syntax-rules () ((m) x))))
    (let ((x 'inner))
      (m)))) ;; => outer

(letrec-syntax bindings body) syntax

Syntax: Same as for let-syntax.

Semantics: The body is expanded in the syntactic environment obtained by extending the syntactic environment of the letrec-syntax expression with macros whose keywords are the keywords, bound to the specified transformers. Each binding of a keyword has the transformer specs as well as the body within its region, so the transformers can transcribe expressions into uses of the macros introduced by the letrec-syntax expression.

(letrec-syntax
    ((my-or (syntax-rules ()
              ((my-or) #f)
              ((my-or e) e)
              ((my-or e1 e2 ...)
               (let ((temp e1))
                 (if temp
                     temp
                     (my-or e2 ...)))))))
  (let ((x #f)
        (y 7)
        (temp 8)
        (let odd?)
        (if even?))
    (my-or x
           (let temp)
           (if y)
           y))) ;; => 7

Pattern language

A transformer spec has one of the following forms:

```scheme TODO FIXME

(syntax-rules (pattern literal … ) syntax ...) (syntax-rules ellipsis (pattern literal … )  syntax ...) _  auxiliary syntax …   auxiliary syntax ```

Syntax: It is an error if any of the pattern literals, or the ellipsis in the second form, is not an identifier. It is also an error if syntax rule is not of the form

(<pattern> <template>)

The pattern in a syntax rule is a list pattern whose first element is an identifier.

A pattern is either an identifier, a constant, or one of the following

(<pattern> ...)
    (<pattern> <pattern> ... . <pattern>)
    (<pattern> ... <pattern> ... <pattern> ...)
    (<pattern> ... <pattern> ... <pattern> ...
      . <pattern>)
    #(<pattern> ...)
    #(<pattern> ... <pattern> ... <pattern> ...)

and a template is either an identifier, a constant, or one of the following

(<element> ...)
    (<element> <element> ... . <template>)
    (... <template>)
    #(<element> ...)

where an element is a template optionally followed by an ellipsis. An ellipsis is the identifier specified in the second form of syntax-rules, or the default identifier ... (three consecutive periods) otherwise.

Semantics: An instance of syntax-rules produces a new macro transformer by specifying a sequence of hygienic rewrite rules. A use of a macro whose keyword is associated with a transformer specified by syntax-rules is matched against the patterns contained in the syntax rules, beginning with the leftmost syntax rule. When a match is found, the macro use is transcribed hygienically according to the template.

An identifier appearing within a pattern can be an underscore (_), a literal identifier listed in the list of pattern literals, or the ellipsis. All other identifiers appearing within a pattern are pattern variables.

The keyword at the beginning of the pattern in a syntax rule is not involved in the matching and is considered neither a pattern variable nor a literal identifier.

Pattern variables match arbitrary input elements and are used to refer to elements of the input in the template. It is an error for the same pattern variable to appear more than once in a pattern.

Underscores also match arbitrary input elements but are not pattern variables and so cannot be used to refer to those elements. If an underscore appears in the pattern literals list, then that takes precedence and underscores in the pattern match as literals. Multiple underscores can appear in a pattern.

Identifiers that appear in (pattern literal … ) are interpreted as literal identifiers to be matched against corresponding elements of the input. An element in the input matches a literal identifier if and only if it is an identifier and either both its occurrence in the macro expression and its occurrence in the macro definition have the same lexical binding, or the two identifiers are the same and both have no lexical binding.

A subpattern followed by ellipsis can match zero or more elements of the input, unless ellipsis appears in the pattern literals, in which case it is matched as a literal.

More formally, an input expression E matches a pattern P if and only if:

It is an error to use a macro keyword, within the scope of its binding, in an expression that does not match any of the patterns.

When a macro use is transcribed according to the template of the matching syntax rule, pattern variables that occur in the template are replaced by the elements they match in the input. Pattern variables that occur in subpatterns followed by one or more instances of the identifier ellipsis are allowed only in subtemplates that are followed by as many instances of ellipsis. They are replaced in the output by all of the elements they match in the input, distributed as indicated. It is an error if the output cannot be built up as specified.

Identifiers that appear in the template but are not pattern variables or the identifier ellipsis are inserted into the output as literal identifiers. If a literal identifier is inserted as a free identifier then it refers to the binding of that identifier within whose scope the instance of syntax-rules appears. If a literal identifier is inserted as a bound identifier then it is in effect renamed to prevent inadvertent captures of free identifiers.

A template of the form (ellipsis template) is identical to template, except that ellipses within the template have no special meaning. That is, any ellipses contained within template are treated as ordinary identifiers. In particular, the template (ellipsis ellipsis) produces a single ellipsis. This allows syntactic abstractions to expand into code containing ellipses.

(define-syntax be-like-begin
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((be-like-begin name)
     (define-syntax name
       (syntax-rules ()
         ((name expr (... ...))
          (begin expr (... ...))))))))

(be-like-begin sequence)
(sequence 1 2 3 4) ;; => 4

As an example, if let and cond are defined as in section [derivedsection] then they are hygienic (as required) and the following is not an error.

(let ((=> #f))
  (cond (#t => 'ok))) ;; => ok

The macro transformer for cond recognizes => as a local variable, and hence an expression, and not as the base identifier =>, which the macro transformer treats as a syntactic keyword. Thus the example expands into

(let ((=> #f))
  (if #t (begin => 'ok)))

instead of

(let ((=> #f))
  (let ((temp #t))
    (if temp ('ok temp))))

which would result in an invalid procedure call.

Signaling errors in macro transformers

(syntax-error message args … ) syntax

syntax-error behaves similarly to error ([exceptionsection]) except that implementations with an expansion pass separate from evaluation should signal an error as soon as syntax-error is expanded. This can be used as a syntax-rules template for a pattern that is an invalid use of the macro, which can provide more descriptive error messages. message is a string literal, and args arbitrary expressions providing additional information. Applications cannot count on being able to catch syntax errors with exception handlers or guards.

(define-syntax simple-let
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((_ (head ... ((x . y) val) . tail)
      body1 body2 ...)
     (syntax-error
      "expected an identifier but got"
      (x . y)))
    ((_ ((name val) ...) body1 body2 ...)
     ((lambda (name ...) body1 body2 ...)
      val ...))))

Program structure

Programs

A Scheme program consists of one or more import declarations followed by a sequence of expressions and definitions. Import declarations specify the libraries on which a program or library depends; a subset of the identifiers exported by the libraries are made available to the program. Expressions are described in chapter [expressionchapter]. Definitions are either variable definitions, syntax definitions, or record-type definitions, all of which are explained in this chapter. They are valid in some, but not all, contexts where expressions are allowed, specifically at the outermost level of a program and at the beginning of a body.

At the outermost level of a program, (begin expression or definition_1 ...) is equivalent to the sequence of expressions and definitions in the begin. Similarly, in a body, (begin definition_1 ...) is equivalent to the sequence definition1 … . Macros can expand into such begin forms. For the formal definition, see [sequencing].

Import declarations and definitions cause bindings to be created in the global environment or modify the value of existing global bindings. The initial environment of a program is empty, so at least one import declaration is needed to introduce initial bindings.

Expressions occurring at the outermost level of a program do not create any bindings. They are executed in order when the program is invoked or loaded, and typically perform some kind of initialization.

Programs and libraries are typically stored in files, although in some implementations they can be entered interactively into a running Scheme system. Other paradigms are possible. Implementations which store libraries in files should document the mapping from the name of a library to its location in the file system.

Import declarations

An import declaration takes the following form:

(import <import-set> ...)

An import declaration provides a way to import identifiers exported by a library. Each import set names a set of bindings from a library and possibly specifies local names for the imported bindings. It takes one of the following forms:

In the first form, all of the identifiers in the named library’s export clauses are imported with the same names (or the exported names if exported with rename). The additional import set forms modify this set as follows:

In a program or library declaration, it is an error to import the same identifier more than once with different bindings, or to redefine or mutate an imported binding with a definition or with set!, or to refer to an identifier before it is imported. However, a REPL should permit these actions.

Variable definitions

A variable definition binds one or more identifiers and specifies an initial value for each of them. The simplest kind of variable definition takes one of the following forms:

Top level definitions

At the outermost level of a program, a definition

(define <variable> <expression>)

has essentially the same effect as the assignment expression

(set! <variable> <expression>)

if variable is bound to a non-syntax value. However, if variable is not bound, or is a syntactic keyword, then the definition will bind variable to a new location before performing the assignment, whereas it would be an error to perform a set! on an unbound variable.

(define add3
  (lambda (x) (+ x 3)))
(add3 3) ;; => 6
(define first car)
(first '(1 2)) ;; => 1

Internal definitions

Definitions can occur at the beginning of a body (that is, the body of a lambda, let, let*, letrec, letrec*, let-values, let*-values, let-syntax, letrec-syntax, parameterize, guard, or case-lambda). Note that such a body might not be apparent until after expansion of other syntax. Such definitions are known as internal definitions as opposed to the global definitions described above. The variables defined by internal definitions are local to the body. That is, variable is bound rather than assigned, and the region of the binding is the entire body. For example,

(let ((x 5))
  (define foo (lambda (y) (bar x y)))
  (define bar (lambda (a b) (+ (* a b) a)))
  (foo (+ x 3))) ;; => 45

An expanded body containing internal definitions can always be converted into a completely equivalent letrec* expression. For example, the let expression in the above example is equivalent to

(let ((x 5))
  (letrec* ((foo (lambda (y) (bar x y)))
            (bar (lambda (a b) (+ (* a b) a))))
    (foo (+ x 3))))

Just as for the equivalent letrec* expression, it is an error if it is not possible to evaluate each expression of every internal definition in a body without assigning or referring to the value of the corresponding variable or the variable of any of the definitions that follow it in body.

It is an error to define the same identifier more than once in the same body.

Wherever an internal definition can occur, (begin definition_1 ...) is equivalent to the sequence of definitions that form the body of the begin.

Multiple-value definitions

Another kind of definition is provided by define-values, which creates multiple definitions from a single expression returning multiple values. It is allowed wherever define is allowed.

(define-values formals expression)  syntax

It is an error if a variable appears more than once in the set of formals.

Semantics: Expression is evaluated, and the formals are bound to the return values in the same way that the formals in a lambda expression are matched to the arguments in a procedure call.

(define-values (x y) (exact-integer-sqrt 17))
(list x y) ;; => (4 1)

(let ()
  (define-values (x y) (values 1 2))
  (+ x y)) ;; => 3

Syntax definitions

Syntax definitions have this form:

(define-syntax keyword transformer spec)

Keyword is an identifier, and the transformer spec is an instance of syntax-rules. Like variable definitions, syntax definitions can appear at the outermost level or nested within a body.

If the define-syntax occurs at the outermost level, then the global syntactic environment is extended by binding the keyword to the specified transformer, but previous expansions of any global binding for keyword remain unchanged. Otherwise, it is an internal syntax definition, and is local to the body in which it is defined. Any use of a syntax keyword before its corresponding definition is an error. In particular, a use that precedes an inner definition will not apply an outer definition.

(let ((x 1) (y 2))
  (define-syntax swap!
    (syntax-rules ()
      ((swap! a b)
       (let ((tmp a))
         (set! a b)
         (set! b tmp)))))
  (swap! x y)
  (list x y)) ;; => (2 1)

Macros can expand into definitions in any context that permits them. However, it is an error for a definition to define an identifier whose binding has to be known in order to determine the meaning of the definition itself, or of any preceding definition that belongs to the same group of internal definitions. Similarly, it is an error for an internal definition to define an identifier whose binding has to be known in order to determine the boundary between the internal definitions and the expressions of the body it belongs to. For example, the following are errors:

(define define 3)

(begin (define begin list))

(let-syntax
    ((foo (syntax-rules ()
            ((foo (proc args ...) body ...)
             (define proc
               (lambda (args ...)
                 body ...))))))
  (let ((x 3))
    (foo (plus x y) (+ x y))
    (define foo x)
    (plus foo x)))

Record-type definitions

Record-type definitions are used to introduce new data types, called record types. Like other definitions, they can appear either at the outermost level or in a body. The values of a record type are called records and are aggregations of zero or more fields, each of which holds a single location. A predicate, a constructor, and field accessors and mutators are defined for each record type.

(define-record-type name ... TODO FIXME) syntax

Syntax: name and pred are identifiers. The constructor is of the form

(<constructore-name> <field-name> ...)

and each field is either of the form

(<field-name> <accessor-name>)

or of the form

(<field-name> <accessor-name> <modified-name>)

It is an error for the same identifier to occur more than once as a field name. It is also an error for the same identifier to occur more than once as an accessor or mutator name.

The define-record-type construct is generative: each use creates a new record type that is distinct from all existing types, including Scheme’s predefined types and other record types — even record types of the same name or structure.

An instance of define-record-type is equivalent to the following definitions:

For instance, the following record-type definition

(define-record-type <pare>
  (kons x y)
  pare?
  (x kar set-kar!)
  (y kdr))

defines kons to be a constructor, kar and kdr to be accessors, set-kar! to be a modifier, and pare? to be a predicate for instances of \.

(pare? (kons 1 2)) ;; => #t
(pare? (cons 1 2)) ;; => #f
(kar (kons 1 2)) ;; => 1
(kdr (kons 1 2)) ;; => 2
(let ((k (kons 1 2)))
  (set-kar! k 3)
  (kar k)) ;; => 3

Libraries

Libraries provide a way to organize Scheme programs into reusable parts with explicitly defined interfaces to the rest of the program. This section defines the notation and semantics for libraries.

Library Syntax

A library definition takes the following form:

(define-library <library-name>
  <library-declaration> ...)

library name is a list whose members are identifiers and exact non-negative integers. It is used to identify the library uniquely when importing from other programs or libraries. Libraries whose first identifier is scheme are reserved for use by this report and future versions of this report. Libraries whose first identifier is srfi are reserved for libraries implementing Scheme Requests for Implementation. It is inadvisable, but not an error, for identifiers in library names to contain any of the characters | ' ? * \< " : > + [ ] / or control characters after escapes are expanded.

A library declaration is any of:

An export declaration specifies a list of identifiers which can be made visible to other libraries or programs. An export spec takes one of the following forms:

In an export spec, an identifier names a single binding defined within or imported into the library, where the external name for the export is the same as the name of the binding within the library. A rename spec exports the binding defined within or imported into the library and named by identifier1 in each (identifier_1 identifier_2) pairing, using identifier2 as the external name.

An import declaration provides a way to import the identifiers exported by another library. It has the same syntax and semantics as an import declaration used in a program or at the REPL (see section [import]).

The begin, include, and include-ci declarations are used to specify the body of the library. They have the same syntax and semantics as the corresponding expression types. This form of begin is analogous to, but not the same as, the two types of begin defined in section [sequencing].

The include-library-declarations declaration is similar to include except that the contents of the file are spliced directly into the current library definition. This can be used, for example, to share the same export declaration among multiple libraries as a simple form of library interface.

The cond-expand declaration has the same syntax and semantics as the cond-expand expression type, except that it expands to spliced-in library declarations rather than expressions enclosed in begin.

One possible implementation of libraries is as follows: After all cond-expand library declarations are expanded, a new environment is constructed for the library consisting of all imported bindings. The expressions from all begin, include and include-ci library declarations are expanded in that environment in the order in which they occur in the library. Alternatively, cond-expand and import declarations may be processed in left to right order interspersed with the processing of other declarations, with the environment growing as imported bindings are added to it by each import declaration.

When a library is loaded, its expressions are executed in textual order. If a library’s definitions are referenced in the expanded form of a program or library body, then that library must be loaded before the expanded program or library body is evaluated. This rule applies transitively. If a library is imported by more than one program or library, it may possibly be loaded additional times.

Similarly, during the expansion of a library (foo), if any syntax keywords imported from another library (bar) are needed to expand the library, then the library (bar) must be expanded and its syntax definitions evaluated before the expansion of (foo).

Regardless of the number of times that a library is loaded, each program or library that imports bindings from a library must do so from a single loading of that library, regardless of the number of import declarations in which it appears. That is, (import (only (foo) a)) followed by (import (only (foo) b)) has the same effect as (import (only (foo) a b)).

Library example

The following example shows how a program can be divided into libraries plus a relatively small main program . If the main program is entered into a REPL, it is not necessary to import the base library.

(define-library (example grid)
  (export make rows cols ref each
          (rename put! set!))
  (import (scheme base))
  (begin
    ;; Create an NxM grid.
    (define (make n m)
      (let ((grid (make-vector n)))
        (do ((i 0 (+ i 1)))
            ((= i n) grid)
          (let ((v (make-vector m \sharpfalse{})))
            (vector-set! grid i v)))))
    (define (rows grid)
      (vector-length grid))
    (define (cols grid)
      (vector-length (vector-ref grid 0)))
    ;; Return \sharpfalse{} if out of range.
    (define (ref grid n m)
      (and (< -1 n (rows grid))
           (< -1 m (cols grid))
           (vector-ref (vector-ref grid n) m)))
    (define (put! grid n m v)
      (vector-set! (vector-ref grid n) m v))
    (define (each grid proc)
      (do ((j 0 (+ j 1)))
          ((= j (rows grid)))
        (do ((k 0 (+ k 1)))
            ((= k (cols grid)))
          (proc j k (ref grid j k)))))))

(define-library (example life)
  (export life)
  (import (except (scheme base) set!)
          (scheme write)
          (example grid))
  (begin
    (define (life-count grid i j)
      (define (count i j)
        (if (ref grid i j) 1 0))
      (+ (count (- i 1) (- j 1))
         (count (- i 1) j)
         (count (- i 1) (+ j 1))
         (count i (- j 1))
         (count i (+ j 1))
         (count (+ i 1) (- j 1))
         (count (+ i 1) j)
         (count (+ i 1) (+ j 1))))
    (define (life-alive? grid i j)
      (case (life-count grid i j)
        ((3) \sharptrue{})
        ((2) (ref grid i j))
        (else \sharpfalse{})))
    (define (life-print grid)
      (display "\x1B;[1H\x1B;[J")  ; clear vt100
      (each grid
            (lambda (i j v)
              (display (if v "*" " "))
              (when (= j (- (cols grid) 1))
                (newline)))))
    (define (life grid iterations)
      (do ((i 0 (+ i 1))
           (grid0 grid grid1)
           (grid1 (make (rows grid) (cols grid))
                  grid0))
          ((= i iterations))
        (each grid0
              (lambda (j k v)
                (let ((a (life-alive? grid0 j k)))
                  (set! grid1 j k a))))
        (life-print grid1)))))

;; Main program.
(import (scheme base)
        (only (example life) life)
        (rename (prefix (example grid) grid-)
                (grid-make make-grid)))

;; Initialize a grid with a glider.
(define grid (make-grid 24 24))
(grid-set! grid 1 1 \sharptrue{})
(grid-set! grid 2 2 \sharptrue{})
(grid-set! grid 3 0 \sharptrue{})
(grid-set! grid 3 1 \sharptrue{})
(grid-set! grid 3 2 \sharptrue{})

;; Run for 80 iterations.
(life grid 80)

The REPL

Implementations may provide an interactive session called a REPL (Read-Eval-Print Loop), where import declarations, expressions and definitions can be entered and evaluated one at a time. For convenience and ease of use, the global Scheme environment in a REPL must not be empty, but must start out with at least the bindings provided by the base library. This library includes the core syntax of Scheme and generally useful procedures that manipulate data. For example, the variable abs is bound to a procedure of one argument that computes the absolute value of a number, and the variable + is bound to a procedure that computes sums. The full list of (scheme base) bindings can be found in Appendix [stdlibraries].

Implementations may provide an initial REPL environment which behaves as if all possible variables are bound to locations, most of which contain unspecified values. Top level REPL definitions in such an implementation are truly equivalent to assignments, unless the identifier is defined as a syntax keyword.

An implementation may provide a mode of operation in which the REPL reads its input from a file. Such a file is not, in general, the same as a program, because it can contain import declarations in places other than the beginning.

Standard procedures

This chapter describes Scheme’s built-in procedures.

The procedures force, promise?, and make-promise are intimately associated with the expression types delay and delay-force, and are described with them in section [force]. In the same way, the procedure make-parameter is intimately associated with the expression type parameterize, and is described with it in section [make-parameter].

A program can use a global variable definition to bind any variable. It may subsequently alter any such binding by an assignment (see section [assignment]). These operations do not modify the behavior of any procedure defined in this report or imported from a library (see section [libraries]). Altering any global binding that has not been introduced by a definition has an unspecified effect on the behavior of the procedures defined in this chapter.

When a procedure is said to return a newly allocated object, it means that the locations in the object are fresh.

Equivalence predicates

A predicate is a procedure that always returns a boolean value (#t or

f). An equivalence predicate is the computational analogue of a

mathematical equivalence relation; it is symmetric, reflexive, and transitive. Of the equivalence predicates described in this section, eq? is the finest or most discriminating, equal? is the coarsest, and eqv? is slightly less discriminating than eq?.

(eqv? obj1 obj2)  procedure The eqv? procedure defines a useful equivalence relation on objects. Briefly, it returns #t if obj1 and obj2 are normally regarded as the same object. This relation is left slightly open to interpretation, but the following partial specification of eqv? holds for all implementations of Scheme.

The eqv? procedure returns #t if:

The eqv? procedure returns #f if:

(eqv? 'a 'a) ;; => #t
(eqv? 'a 'b) ;; => #f
(eqv? 2 2) ;; => #t
(eqv? 2 2.0) ;; => #f
(eqv? '() '()) ;; => #t
(eqv? 100000000 100000000) ;; => #t
(eqv? 0.0 +nan.0) ;; => #f
(eqv? (cons 1 2) (cons 1 2)) ;; => #f
(eqv? (lambda () 1)
      (lambda () 2)) ;; => #f
(let ((p (lambda (x) x)))
  (eqv? p p)) ;; => #t
(eqv? #f 'nil) ;; => #f

The following examples illustrate cases in which the above rules do not fully specify the behavior of eqv?. All that can be said about such cases is that the value returned by eqv? must be a boolean.

(eqv? "" "") ;; => unspecified
(eqv? '#() '#()) ;; => unspecified
(eqv? (lambda (x) x)
      (lambda (x) x)) ;; => unspecified
(eqv? (lambda (x) x)
      (lambda (y) y)) ;; => unspecified
(eqv? 1.0e0 1.0f0) ;; => unspecified
(eqv? +nan.0 +nan.0) ;; => unspecified

Note that (eqv? 0.0 -0.0) will return #f if negative zero is distinguished, and #t if negative zero is not distinguished.

The next set of examples shows the use of eqv? with procedures that have local state. The gen-counter procedure must return a distinct procedure every time, since each procedure has its own internal counter. The gen-loser procedure, however, returns operationally equivalent procedures each time, since the local state does not affect the value or side effects of the procedures. However, eqv? may or may not detect this equivalence.

(define gen-counter
  (lambda ()
    (let ((n 0))
      (lambda () (set! n (+ n 1)) n))))
(let ((g (gen-counter)))
  (eqv? g g)) ;; => #t
(eqv? (gen-counter) (gen-counter))
;; => #f
(define gen-loser
  (lambda ()
    (let ((n 0))
      (lambda () (set! n (+ n 1)) 27))))
(let ((g (gen-loser)))
  (eqv? g g)) ;; => #t
(eqv? (gen-loser) (gen-loser))
;; => unspecified

(letrec ((f (lambda () (if (eqv? f g) 'both 'f)))
         (g (lambda () (if (eqv? f g) 'both 'g))))
  (eqv? f g))
;; => unspecified

(letrec ((f (lambda () (if (eqv? f g) 'f 'both)))
         (g (lambda () (if (eqv? f g) 'g 'both))))
  (eqv? f g))
;; => #f

Since it is an error to modify constant objects (those returned by literal expressions), implementations may share structure between constants where appropriate. Thus the value of eqv? on constants is sometimes implementation-dependent.

(eqv? '(a) '(a)) ;; => unspecified
(eqv? "a" "a") ;; => unspecified
(eqv? '(b) (cdr '(a b))) ;; => unspecified
(let ((x '(a)))
  (eqv? x x)) ;; => #t

The above definition of eqv? allows implementations latitude in their treatment of procedures and literals: implementations may either detect or fail to detect that two procedures or two literals are equivalent to each other, and can decide whether or not to merge representations of equivalent objects by using the same pointer or bit pattern to represent both.

Note: If inexact numbers are represented as IEEE binary floating-point numbers, then an implementation of eqv? that simply compares equal-sized inexact numbers for bitwise equality is correct by the above definition.

(eq? obj1 obj2)  procedure The eq? procedure is similar to eqv? except that in some cases it is capable of discerning distinctions finer than those detectable by eqv?. It must always return #f when eqv? also would, but may return #f in some cases where eqv? would return #t.

On symbols, booleans, the empty list, pairs, and records, and also on non-empty strings, vectors, and bytevectors, eq? and eqv? are guaranteed to have the same behavior. On procedures, eq? must return true if the arguments’ location tags are equal. On numbers and characters, eq?’s behavior is implementation-dependent, but it will always return either true or false. On empty strings, empty vectors, and empty bytevectors, eq? may also behave differently from eqv?.

(eq? 'a 'a) ;; => #t
(eq? '(a) '(a)) ;; => unspecified
(eq? (list 'a) (list 'a)) ;; => #f
(eq? "a" "a") ;; => unspecified
(eq? "" "") ;; => unspecified
(eq? '() '()) ;; => #t
(eq? 2 2) ;; => unspecified
(eq? #\A #\A) ;; => unspecified
(eq? car car) ;; => #t
(let ((n (+ 2 3)))
  (eq? n n)) ;; => unspecified
(let ((x '(a)))
  (eq? x x)) ;; => #t
(let ((x '#()))
  (eq? x x)) ;; => #t
(let ((p (lambda (x) x)))
  (eq? p p)) ;; => #t

Rationale: It will usually be possible to implement eq? much more efficiently than eqv?, for example, as a simple pointer comparison instead of as some more complicated operation. One reason is that it is not always possible to compute eqv? of two numbers in constant time, whereas eq? implemented as pointer comparison will always finish in constant time.

(equal? obj1 obj2)  procedure The equal? procedure, when applied to pairs, vectors, strings and bytevectors, recursively compares them, returning #t when the unfoldings of its arguments into (possibly infinite) trees are equal (in the sense of equal?) as ordered trees, and #f otherwise. It returns the same as eqv? when applied to booleans, symbols, numbers, characters, ports, procedures, and the empty list. If two objects are eqv?, they must be equal? as well. In all other cases, equal? may return either #t or #f.

Even if its arguments are circular data structures, equal? must always terminate.

(equal? 'a 'a) ;; => #t
(equal? '(a) '(a)) ;; => #t
(equal? '(a (b) c)
        '(a (b) c)) ;; => #t
(equal? "abc" "abc") ;; => #t
(equal? 2 2) ;; => #t
(equal? (make-vector 5 'a)
        (make-vector 5 'a)) ;; => #t
(equal? '#1=(a b . #1#)
        '#2=(a b a b . #2#)) ;; => #t
(equal? (lambda (x) x)
        (lambda (y) y)) ;; => unspecified

Note: A rule of thumb is that objects are generally equal? if they print the same.

Numbers

It is important to distinguish between mathematical numbers, the Scheme numbers that attempt to model them, the machine representations used to implement the Scheme numbers, and notations used to write numbers. This report uses the types number, complex, real, rational, and integer to refer to both mathematical numbers and Scheme numbers.

Numerical types

Mathematically, numbers are arranged into a tower of subtypes in which each level is a subset of the level above it:

number
complex number
real number
rational number
integer

For example, 3 is an integer. Therefore 3 is also a rational, a real, and a complex number. The same is true of the Scheme numbers that model

  1. For Scheme numbers, these types are defined by the predicates number?, complex?, real?, rational?, and integer?.

There is no simple relationship between a number’s type and its representation inside a computer. Although most implementations of Scheme will offer at least two different representations of 3, these different representations denote the same integer.

Scheme’s numerical operations treat numbers as abstract data, as independent of their representation as possible. Although an implementation of Scheme may use multiple internal representations of numbers, this ought not to be apparent to a casual programmer writing simple programs.

Exactness

It is useful to distinguish between numbers that are represented exactly and those that might not be. For example, indexes into data structures must be known exactly, as must some polynomial coefficients in a symbolic algebra system. On the other hand, the results of measurements are inherently inexact, and irrational numbers may be approximated by rational and therefore inexact approximations. In order to catch uses of inexact numbers where exact numbers are required, Scheme explicitly distinguishes exact from inexact numbers. This distinction is orthogonal to the dimension of type.

A Scheme number is exact if it was written as an exact constant or was derived from exact numbers using only exact operations. A number is inexact if it was written as an inexact constant, if it was derived using inexact ingredients, or if it was derived using inexact operations. Thus inexactness is a contagious property of a number. In particular, an exact complex number has an exact real part and an exact imaginary part; all other complex numbers are inexact complex numbers.

If two implementations produce exact results for a computation that did not involve inexact intermediate results, the two ultimate results will be mathematically equal. This is generally not true of computations involving inexact numbers since approximate methods such as floating-point arithmetic may be used, but it is the duty of each implementation to make the result as close as practical to the mathematically ideal result.

Rational operations such as + should always produce exact results when given exact arguments. If the operation is unable to produce an exact result, then it may either report the violation of an implementation restriction or it may silently coerce its result to an inexact value. However, (/ 3 4) must not return the mathematically incorrect value 0. See section [restrictions].

Except for exact, the operations described in this section must generally return inexact results when given any inexact arguments. An operation may, however, return an exact result if it can prove that the value of the result is unaffected by the inexactness of its arguments. For example, multiplication of any number by an exact zero may produce an exact zero result, even if the other argument is inexact.

Specifically, the expression (* 0 +inf.0) may return 0, or +nan.0, or report that inexact numbers are not supported, or report that non-rational real numbers are not supported, or fail silently or noisily in other implementation-specific ways.

Implementation restrictions

Implementations of Scheme are not required to implement the whole tower of subtypes given in section [numericaltypes], but they must implement a coherent subset consistent with both the purposes of the implementation and the spirit of the Scheme language. For example, implementations in which all numbers are real, or in which non-real numbers are always inexact, or in which exact numbers are always integer, are still quite useful.

Implementations may also support only a limited range of numbers of any type, subject to the requirements of this section. The supported range for exact numbers of any type may be different from the supported range for inexact numbers of that type. For example, an implementation that uses IEEE binary double-precision floating-point numbers to represent all its inexact real numbers may also support a practically unbounded range of exact integers and rationals while limiting the range of inexact reals (and therefore the range of inexact integers and rationals) to the dynamic range of the IEEE binary double format. Furthermore, the gaps between the representable inexact integers and rationals are likely to be very large in such an implementation as the limits of this range are approached.

An implementation of Scheme must support exact integers throughout the range of numbers permitted as indexes of lists, vectors, bytevectors, and strings or that result from computing the length of one of these. The length, vector-length, bytevector-length, and string-length procedures must return an exact integer, and it is an error to use anything but an exact integer as an index. Furthermore, any integer constant within the index range, if expressed by an exact integer syntax, must be read as an exact integer, regardless of any implementation restrictions that apply outside this range. Finally, the procedures listed below will always return exact integer results provided all their arguments are exact integers and the mathematically expected results are representable as exact integers within the implementation:

-                     *
+                     abs
ceiling               denominator
exact-integer-sqrt    expt
floor                 floor/
floor-quotient        floor-remainder
gcd                   lcm
max                   min
modulo                numerator
quotient              rationalize
remainder             round
square                truncate
truncate/             truncate-quotient
truncate-remainder

It is recommended, but not required, that implementations support exact integers and exact rationals of practically unlimited size and precision, and to implement the above procedures and the / procedure in such a way that they always return exact results when given exact arguments. If one of these procedures is unable to deliver an exact result when given exact arguments, then it may either report a violation of an implementation restriction or it may silently coerce its result to an inexact number; such a coercion can cause an error later. Nevertheless, implementations that do not provide exact rational numbers should return inexact rational numbers rather than reporting an implementation restriction.

An implementation may use floating-point and other approximate representation strategies for inexact numbers. This report recommends, but does not require, that implementations that use floating-point representations follow the IEEE 754 standard, and that implementations using other representations should match or exceed the precision achievable using these floating-point standards . In particular, the description of transcendental functions in IEEE 754-2008 should be followed by such implementations, particularly with respect to infinities and NaNs.

Although Scheme allows a variety of written notations for numbers, any particular implementation may support only some of them. For example, an implementation in which all numbers are real need not support the rectangular and polar notations for complex numbers. If an implementation encounters an exact numerical constant that it cannot represent as an exact number, then it may either report a violation of an implementation restriction or it may silently represent the constant by an inexact number.

Implementation extensions

Implementations may provide more than one representation of floating-point numbers with differing precisions. In an implementation which does so, an inexact result must be represented with at least as much precision as is used to express any of the inexact arguments to that operation. Although it is desirable for potentially inexact operations such as sqrt to produce exact answers when applied to exact arguments, if an exact number is operated upon so as to produce an inexact result, then the most precise representation available must be used. For example, the value of (sqrt 4) should be 2, but in an implementation that provides both single and double precision floating point numbers it may be the latter but must not be the former.

It is the programmer’s responsibility to avoid using inexact number objects with magnitude or significand too large to be represented in the implementation.

In addition, implementations may distinguish special numbers called positive infinity, negative infinity, NaN, and negative zero.

Positive infinity is regarded as an inexact real (but not rational) number that represents an indeterminate value greater than the numbers represented by all rational numbers. Negative infinity is regarded as an inexact real (but not rational) number that represents an indeterminate value less than the numbers represented by all rational numbers.

Adding or multiplying an infinite value by any finite real value results in an appropriately signed infinity; however, the sum of positive and negative infinities is a NaN. Positive infinity is the reciprocal of zero, and negative infinity is the reciprocal of negative zero. The behavior of the transcendental functions is sensitive to infinity in accordance with IEEE 754.

A NaN is regarded as an inexact real (but not rational) number so indeterminate that it might represent any real value, including positive or negative infinity, and might even be greater than positive infinity or less than negative infinity. An implementation that does not support non-real numbers may use NaN to represent non-real values like (sqrt -1.0) and (asin 2.0).

A NaN always compares false to any number, including a NaN. An arithmetic operation where one operand is NaN returns NaN, unless the implementation can prove that the result would be the same if the NaN were replaced by any rational number. Dividing zero by zero results in NaN unless both zeros are exact.

Negative zero is an inexact real value written -0.0 and is distinct (in the sense of eqv?) from 0.0. A Scheme implementation is not required to distinguish negative zero. If it does, however, the behavior of the transcendental functions is sensitive to the distinction in accordance with IEEE 754. Specifically, in a Scheme implementing both complex numbers and negative zero, the branch cut of the complex logarithm function is such that (imag-part (log -1.0-0.0i)) is  − π rather than π.

Furthermore, the negation of negative zero is ordinary zero and vice versa. This implies that the sum of two or more negative zeros is negative, and the result of subtracting (positive) zero from a negative zero is likewise negative. However, numerical comparisons treat negative zero as equal to zero.

Note that both the real and the imaginary parts of a complex number can be infinities, NaNs, or negative zero.

Syntax of numerical constants

The syntax of the written representations for numbers is described formally in section [numbersyntax]. Note that case is not significant in numerical constants.

A number can be written in binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal by the use of a radix prefix. The radix prefixes are #b (binary), #o (octal),

d (decimal), and #x (hexadecimal). With no radix prefix, a number is

assumed to be expressed in decimal.

A numerical constant can be specified to be either exact or inexact by a prefix. The prefixes are #e for exact, and #i for inexact. An exactness prefix can appear before or after any radix prefix that is used. If the written representation of a number has no exactness prefix, the constant is inexact if it contains a decimal point or an exponent. Otherwise, it is exact.

In systems with inexact numbers of varying precisions it can be useful to specify the precision of a constant. For this purpose, implementations may accept numerical constants written with an exponent marker that indicates the desired precision of the inexact representation. If so, the letter s, f, d, or l, meaning short, single, double, or long precision, respectively, can be used in place of e. The default precision has at least as much precision as double, but implementations may allow this default to be set by the user.

3.14159265358979F0
;; Round to single --- 3.141593
0.6L0
;; Extend to long --- .600000000000000

The numbers positive infinity, negative infinity, and NaN are written +inf.0, -inf.0 and +nan.0 respectively. NaN may also be written -nan.0. The use of signs in the written representation does not necessarily reflect the underlying sign of the NaN value, if any. Implementations are not required to support these numbers, but if they do, they must do so in general conformance with IEEE 754. However, implementations are not required to support signaling NaNs, nor to provide a way to distinguish between different NaNs.

There are two notations provided for non-real complex numbers: the rectangular notation a+bi, where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part; and the polar notation r@θ, where r is the magnitude and θ is the phase (angle) in radians. These are related by the equation a + b**i = rcos θ + (rsinθ)i. All of a, b, r, and θ are real numbers.

Numerical operations

The reader is referred to section [typeconventions] for a summary of the naming conventions used to specify restrictions on the types of arguments to numerical routines. The examples used in this section assume that any numerical constant written using an exact notation is indeed represented as an exact number. Some examples also assume that certain numerical constants written using an inexact notation can be represented without loss of accuracy; the inexact constants were chosen so that this is likely to be true in implementations that use IEEE binary doubles to represent inexact numbers.

(number? obj)  procedure

(complex? obj)  procedure

(real? obj)  procedure

(rational? obj)  procedure

(integer? obj)  procedure

These numerical type predicates can be applied to any kind of argument, including non-numbers. They return #t if the object is of the named type, and otherwise they return #f. In general, if a type predicate is true of a number then all higher type predicates are also true of that number. Consequently, if a type predicate is false of a number, then all lower type predicates are also false of that number.

If z is a complex number, then (real? z) is true if and only if (zero? (imag-part z)) is true. If x is an inexact real number, then (integer? x) is true if and only if (= x (round x)).

The numbers +inf.0, -inf.0, and +nan.0 are real but not rational.

(complex? 3+4i) ;; => #t
(complex? 3) ;; => #t
(real? 3) ;; => #t
(real? -2.5+0i) ;; => #t
(real? -2.5+0.0i) ;; => #f
(real? #e1e10) ;; => #t
(real? +inf.0) ;; => #t
(real? +nan.0) ;; => #t
(rational? -inf.0) ;; => #f
(rational? 3.5) ;; => #t
(rational? 6/10) ;; => #t
(rational? 6/3) ;; => #t
(integer? 3+0i) ;; => #t
(integer? 3.0) ;; => #t
(integer? 8/4) ;; => #t

Note: The behavior of these type predicates on inexact numbers is unreliable, since any inaccuracy might affect the result.

Note: In many implementations the complex? procedure will be the same as number?, but unusual implementations may represent some irrational numbers exactly or may extend the number system to support some kind of non-complex numbers.

(exact? z)  procedure

(inexact? z)  procedure

These numerical predicates provide tests for the exactness of a quantity. For any Scheme number, precisely one of these predicates is true.

(exact? 3.0) ;; => #f
(exact? #e3.0) ;; => #t
(inexact? 3.) ;; => #t

(exact-integer? z)  procedure

Returns #t if z is both exact and an integer; otherwise returns #f.

(exact-integer? 32) ;; => #t{}
(exact-integer? 32.0) ;; => #f
(exact-integer? 32/5) ;; => #f

(finite? z)  inexact library procedure

The finite? procedure returns #t on all real numbers except +inf.0, -inf.0, and +nan.0, and on complex numbers if their real and imaginary parts are both finite. Otherwise it returns #f.

(finite? 3) ;; => #t
(finite? +inf.0) ;; => #f
(finite? 3.0+inf.0i) ;; => #f

(infinite? z)  inexact library procedure

The infinite? procedure returns #t on the real numbers +inf.0 and -inf.0, and on complex numbers if their real or imaginary parts or both are infinite. Otherwise it returns #f.

(infinite? 3) ;; => #f
(infinite? +inf.0) ;; => #t
(infinite? +nan.0) ;; => #f
(infinite? 3.0+inf.0i) ;; => #t

(nan? z)  inexact library procedure

The nan? procedure returns #t on +nan.0, and on complex numbers if their real or imaginary parts or both are +nan.0. Otherwise it returns #f.

(nan? +nan.0) ;; => #t
(nan? 32) ;; => #f
(nan? +nan.0+5.0i) ;; => #t
(nan? 1+2i) ;; => #f

(= *z1 z2 z3 … *)  procedure

(\< *x1 x2 x3 … *)  procedure

(> *x1 x2 x3 … *)  procedure

(\<= *x1 x2 x3 … *)  procedure

(>= *x1 x2 x3 … *)  procedure

These procedures return #t if their arguments are (respectively): equal, monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing, monotonically non-decreasing, or monotonically non-increasing, and #f otherwise. If any of the arguments are +nan.0, all the predicates return #f. They do not distinguish between inexact zero and inexact negative zero.

These predicates are required to be transitive.

Note: The implementation approach of converting all arguments to inexact numbers if any argument is inexact is not transitive. For example, let big be (expt 2 1000), and assume that big is exact and that inexact numbers are represented by 64-bit IEEE binary floating point numbers. Then (= (- big 1) (inexact big)) and (= (inexact big) (+ big 1)) would both be true with this approach, because of the limitations of IEEE representations of large integers, whereas (= (- big 1) (+ big 1)) is false. Converting inexact values to exact numbers that are the same (in the sense of =) to them will avoid this problem, though special care must be taken with infinities.

Note: While it is not an error to compare inexact numbers using these predicates, the results are unreliable because a small inaccuracy can affect the result; this is especially true of = and zero?. When in doubt, consult a numerical analyst.

(zero? z)  procedure

(positive? x)  procedure

(negative? x)  procedure

(odd? n)  procedure

(even? n)  procedure

These numerical predicates test a number for a particular property, returning #t or #f. See note above.

(max *x1 x2 … *)  procedure

(min *x1 x2 … *)  procedure

These procedures return the maximum or minimum of their arguments.

(max 3 4) ;; => 4    ; exact
(max 3.9 4) ;; => 4.0  ; inexact

Note: If any argument is inexact, then the result will also be inexact (unless the procedure can prove that the inaccuracy is not large enough to affect the result, which is possible only in unusual implementations). If min or max is used to compare numbers of mixed exactness, and the numerical value of the result cannot be represented as an inexact number without loss of accuracy, then the procedure may report a violation of an implementation restriction.

(+ z1 … )  procedure (* z1 … )  procedure These procedures return the sum or product of their arguments.

(+ 3 4) ;; => 7
(+ 3) ;; => 3
(+) ;; => 0
(* 4) ;; => 4
(*) ;; => 1

(- z)  procedure

(- *z1 z2 … *)  procedure

(/ z)  procedure

(/ *z1 z2 … *)  procedure

With two or more arguments, these procedures return the difference or quotient of their arguments, associating to the left. With one argument, however, they return the additive or multiplicative inverse of their argument.

It is an error if any argument of / other than the first is an exact zero. If the first argument is an exact zero, an implementation may return an exact zero unless one of the other arguments is a NaN.

(- 3 4) ;; => -1
(- 3 4 5) ;; => -6
(- 3) ;; => -3
(/ 3 4 5) ;; => 3/20
(/ 3) ;; => 1/3

(abs x)  procedure

The abs procedure returns the absolute value of its argument.

(abs -7) ;; => 7

(floor/ *n1 n2*)  procedure

(floor-quotient *n1 n2*)  procedure

(floor-remainder *n1 n2*)  procedure

(truncate/ *n1 n2*)  procedure

(truncate-quotient *n1 n2*)  procedure

(truncate-remainder *n1 n2*)  procedure

These procedures implement number-theoretic (integer) division. It is an error if n2 is zero. The procedures ending in / return two integers; the other procedures return an integer. All the procedures compute a quotient n*q* and remainder n*r* such that ${\\hbox{$n_1$\\/}} = {\\hbox{$n_2$\\/}} {\\hbox{$n_q$\\/}} + {\\hbox{$n_r$\\/}}$. For each of the division operators, there are three procedures defined as follows:

(<operator>/ \vri{n} \vrii{n}) ;; => \vr{n_q} \vr{n_r}
(<operator>-quotient \vri{n} \vrii{n}) ;; => \vr{n_q}
(<operator>-remainder \vri{n} \vrii{n}) ;; => \vr{n_r}

The remainder n*r* is determined by the choice of integer n*q*: ${\\hbox{$n_r$\\/}} = {\\hbox{$n_1$\\/}} - {\\hbox{$n_2$\\/}} {\\hbox{$n_q$\\/}}$. Each set of operators uses a different choice of n*q*:

floor ${\\hbox{$n_q$\\/}} = \\lfloor{\\hbox{$n_1$\\/}} / {\\hbox{$n_2$\\/}}\\rfloor$
truncate ${\\hbox{$n_q$\\/}} = \\text{truncate}({\\hbox{$n_1$\\/}} / {\\hbox{$n_2$\\/}})$

For any of the operators, and for integers n1 and n2 with n2 not equal to 0,

(= \vri{n} (+ (* \vrii{n} (<operator>-quotient \vri{n} \vrii{n}))
              (<operator>-remainder \vri{n} \vrii{n})))
 ;; => #t

provided all numbers involved in that computation are exact.

Examples:

(floor/ 5 2) ;; => 2 1
(floor/ -5 2) ;; => -3 1
(floor/ 5 -2) ;; => -3 -1
(floor/ -5 -2) ;; => 2 -1
(truncate/ 5 2) ;; => 2 1
(truncate/ -5 2) ;; => -2 -1
(truncate/ 5 -2) ;; => -2 1
(truncate/ -5 -2) ;; => 2 -1
(truncate/ -5.0 -2) ;; => 2.0 -1.0

(quotient *n1 n2*)  procedure

(remainder *n1 n2*)  procedure

(modulo *n1 n2*)  procedure

The quotient and remainder procedures are equivalent to truncate-quotient and truncate-remainder, respectively, and modulo is equivalent to floor-remainder.

Note: These procedures are provided for backward compatibility with earlier versions of this report.

(gcd *n1 … *)  procedure

(lcm *n1 … *)  procedure

These procedures return the greatest common divisor or least common multiple of their arguments. The result is always non-negative.

(gcd 32 -36) ;; => 4
(gcd) ;; => 0
(lcm 32 -36) ;; => 288
(lcm 32.0 -36) ;; => 288.0  ; inexact
(lcm) ;; => 1

(numerator q)  procedure

(denominator q)  procedure

These procedures return the numerator or denominator of their argument; the result is computed as if the argument was represented as a fraction in lowest terms. The denominator is always positive. The denominator of 0 is defined to be 1.

(numerator (/ 6 4)) ;; => 3
(denominator (/ 6 4)) ;; => 2
(denominator
 (inexact (/ 6 4))) ;; => 2.0

(floor x)  procedure

(ceiling x)  procedure

(truncate x)  procedure

(round x)  procedure

These procedures return integers. The floor procedure returns the largest integer not larger than x. The ceiling procedure returns the smallest integer not smaller than x, truncate returns the integer closest to x whose absolute value is not larger than the absolute value of x, and round returns the closest integer to x, rounding to even when x is halfway between two integers.

Rationale: The round procedure rounds to even for consistency with the default rounding mode specified by the IEEE 754 IEEE floating-point standard.

Note: If the argument to one of these procedures is inexact, then the result will also be inexact. If an exact value is needed, the result can be passed to the exact procedure. If the argument is infinite or a NaN, then it is returned.

(floor -4.3) ;; => -5.0
(ceiling -4.3) ;; => -4.0
(truncate -4.3) ;; => -4.0
(round -4.3) ;; => -4.0

(floor 3.5) ;; => 3.0
(ceiling 3.5) ;; => 4.0
(truncate 3.5) ;; => 3.0
(round 3.5) ;; => 4.0  ; inexact

(round 7/2) ;; => 4    ; exact
(round 7) ;; => 7

(rationalize x y)  procedure

The rationalize procedure returns the simplest rational number differing from x by no more than y. A rational number r1 is simpler than another rational number r2 if r1 = p1/q1 and r2 = p2/q2 (in lowest terms) and |p1| ≤ |p2| and |q1| ≤ |q2|. Thus 3/5 is simpler than 4/7. Although not all rationals are comparable in this ordering (consider 2/7 and 3/5), any interval contains a rational number that is simpler than every other rational number in that interval (the simpler 2/5 lies between 2/7 and 3/5). Note that 0 = 0/1 is the simplest rational of all.

(rationalize
 (exact .3) 1/10) ;; => 1/3    ; exact
(rationalize .3 1/10) ;; => #i1/3  ; inexact

(exp z)  inexact library procedure

(log z)  inexact library procedure

(log *z1 z2*)  inexact library procedure

(sin z)  inexact library procedure

(cos z)  inexact library procedure

(tan z)  inexact library procedure

(asin z)  inexact library procedure

(acos z)  inexact library procedure

(atan z)  inexact library procedure

(atan y x)  inexact library procedure

These procedures compute the usual transcendental functions. The log procedure computes the natural logarithm of z (not the base ten logarithm) if a single argument is given, or the base-z2 logarithm of z1 if two arguments are given. The asin, acos, and atan procedures compute arcsine (sin−1), arc-cosine (cos−1), and arctangent (tan−1), respectively. The two-argument variant of atan computes (angle (make-rectangular x y)) (see below), even in implementations that don’t support complex numbers.

In general, the mathematical functions log, arcsine, arc-cosine, and arctangent are multiply defined. The value of log z is defined to be the one whose imaginary part lies in the range from  − π (inclusive if -0.0 is distinguished, exclusive otherwise) to π (inclusive). The value of log 0 is mathematically undefined. With log  defined this way, the values of sin−1z, cos−1z, and tan−1z are according to the following formulæ: $$\sin^{- 1}z = - i\log\left( iz + \sqrt{1 - z^{2}} \right)$$ cos−1z = π/2 − sin−1z tan−1z = (log(1+i**z)−log(1−i**z))/(2i)

However, (log 0.0) returns -inf.0 (and (log -0.0) returns -inf.0+πi) if the implementation supports infinities (and -0.0).

The range of (atan y x) is as in the following table. The asterisk (*) indicates that the entry applies to implementations that distinguish minus zero.

| | *y* condition | *x* condition | range of result *r* | |:---:|:--------------|:--------------|:-----------------------------------| | | *y* = 0.0 | *x* \> 0.0 | 0.0 | | \* | *y* =  + 0.0 | *x* \> 0.0 |  + 0.0 | | \* | *y* =  − 0.0 | *x* \> 0.0 |  − 0.0 | | | *y* \> 0.0 | *x* \> 0.0 | $0.0 \< r \< \\frac{\\pi}{2}$ | | | *y* \> 0.0 | *x* = 0.0 | $\\frac{\\pi}{2}$ | | | *y* \> 0.0 | *x* \< 0.0 | $\\frac{\\pi}{2} \< r \< \\pi$ | | | *y* = 0.0 | *x* \< 0 | *π* | | \* | *y* =  + 0.0 | *x* \< 0.0 | *π* | | \* | *y* =  − 0.0 | *x* \< 0.0 |  − *π* | | | *y* \< 0.0 | *x* \< 0.0 | $- \\pi \< r \< - \\frac{\\pi}{2}$ | | | *y* \< 0.0 | *x* = 0.0 | $- \\frac{\\pi}{2}$ | | | *y* \< 0.0 | *x* \> 0.0 | $- \\frac{\\pi}{2} \< r \< 0.0$ | | | *y* = 0.0 | *x* = 0.0 | undefined | | \* | *y* =  + 0.0 | *x* =  + 0.0 |  + 0.0 | | \* | *y* =  − 0.0 | *x* =  + 0.0 |  − 0.0 | | \* | *y* =  + 0.0 | *x* =  − 0.0 | *π* | | \* | *y* =  − 0.0 | *x* =  − 0.0 |  − *π* | | \* | *y* =  + 0.0 | *x* = 0 | $\\frac{\\pi}{2}$ | | \* | *y* =  − 0.0 | *x* = 0 | $- \\frac{\\pi}{2}$ |

The above specification follows , which in turn cites ; refer to these sources for more detailed discussion of branch cuts, boundary conditions, and implementation of these functions. When it is possible, these procedures produce a real result from a real argument.

(square z)  procedure Returns the square of z. This is equivalent to (* z z).

(square 42) ;; => 1764
(square 2.0) ;; => 4.0

(sqrt z)  inexact library procedure Returns the principal square root of z. The result will have either a positive real part, or a zero real part and a non-negative imaginary part.

(sqrt 9) ;; => 3
(sqrt -1) ;; => +i

(exact-integer-sqrt k)  procedure Returns two non-negative exact integers s and r where $\\hbox{\\it{}k\\/} = s^2 + r$ and $\\hbox{\\it{}k\\/} \< (s+1)^2$.

(exact-integer-sqrt 4) ;; => 2 0
(exact-integer-sqrt 5) ;; => 2 1

(expt *z1 z2*)  procedure

Returns z1 raised to the power z2. For nonzero z1, this is z1*z*2 = e*z*2log *z*1 The value of 0*z* is 1 if (zero? z), 0 if (real-part z) is positive, and an error otherwise. Similarly for 0.0*z*, with inexact results.

(make-rectangular *x1 x2*) complex library procedure

(make-polar *x3 x4*)  complex library procedure

(real-part z)  complex library procedure

(imag-part z)  complex library procedure

(magnitude z)  complex library procedure

(angle z)  complex library procedure

Let x1, x2, x3, and x4 be real numbers and z be a complex number such that $${\\hbox{$z$\\/}} = {\\hbox{$x_1$\\/}} + {\\hbox{$x_2$\\/}}\\hbox{$i$} = {\\hbox{$x_3$\\/}} \\cdot e^{i x_4}$$ Then all of

(make-rectangular \vri{x} \vrii{x}) ;; => \vr{z}
(make-polar \vriii{x} \vriv{x}) ;; => \vr{z}
(real-part \vr{z}) ;; => \vri{x}
(imag-part \vr{z}) ;; => \vrii{x}
(magnitude \vr{z}) ;; => $|\vriii{x}|$
(angle \vr{z}) ;; => $x_{angle}$

are true, where  − π ≤ x*a**n**g**l**e* ≤ π with $x_{angle} = {\\hbox{$x_4$\\/}} + 2\\pi n$ for some integer n.

The make-polar procedure may return an inexact complex number even if its arguments are exact. The real-part and imag-part procedures may return exact real numbers when applied to an inexact complex number if the corresponding argument passed to make-rectangular was exact.

Rationale: The magnitude procedure is the same as abs for a real argument, but abs is in the base library, whereas magnitude is in the optional complex library.

(inexact z)  procedure

(exact z)  procedure

The procedure inexact returns an inexact representation of z. The value returned is the inexact number that is numerically closest to the argument. For inexact arguments, the result is the same as the argument. For exact complex numbers, the result is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are the result of applying inexact to the real and imaginary parts of the argument, respectively. If an exact argument has no reasonably close inexact equivalent (in the sense of =), then a violation of an implementation restriction may be reported.

The procedure exact returns an exact representation of z. The value returned is the exact number that is numerically closest to the argument. For exact arguments, the result is the same as the argument. For inexact non-integral real arguments, the implementation may return a rational approximation, or may report an implementation violation. For inexact complex arguments, the result is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are the result of applying exact to the real and imaginary parts of the argument, respectively. If an inexact argument has no reasonably close exact equivalent, (in the sense of =), then a violation of an implementation restriction may be reported.

These procedures implement the natural one-to-one correspondence between exact and inexact integers throughout an implementation-dependent range. See section [restrictions].

Note: These procedures were known in R5RS as exact->inexact and inexact->exact, respectively, but they have always accepted arguments of any exactness. The new names are clearer and shorter, as well as being compatible with R6RS.

Numerical input and output

(number->string z)  procedure

(number->string z radix)  procedure

It is an error if radix is not one of 2, 8, 10, or 16.

The procedure numberstring takes a number and a radix and returns as a string an external representation of the given number in the given radix such that

(let ((number \vr{number})
      (radix \vr{radix}))
  (eqv? number
        (string->number (number->string number
                                        radix)
                        radix)))

is true. It is an error if no possible result makes this expression true. If omitted, radix defaults to 10.

If z is inexact, the radix is 10, and the above expression can be satisfied by a result that contains a decimal point, then the result contains a decimal point and is expressed using the minimum number of digits (exclusive of exponent and trailing zeroes) needed to make the above expression true ; otherwise the format of the result is unspecified.

The result returned by numberstring never contains an explicit radix prefix.

Note: The error case can occur only when z is not a complex number or is a complex number with a non-rational real or imaginary part.

Rationale: If z is an inexact number and the radix is 10, then the above expression is normally satisfied by a result containing a decimal point. The unspecified case allows for infinities, NaNs, and unusual representations.

(string->number string)  procedure

(string->number string radix)  procedure

Returns a number of the maximally precise representation expressed by the given strin**g. It is an error if radix is not 2, 8, 10, or 16.

If supplied, radix is a default radix that will be overridden if an explicit radix prefix is present in strin**g (e.g. "#o177"). If radix is not supplied, then the default radix is 10. If strin**g is not a syntactically valid notation for a number, or would result in a number that the implementation cannot represent, then string->number returns #f. An error is never signaled due to the content of strin**g.

(string->number "100") ;; => 100
(string->number "100" 16) ;; => 256
(string->number "1e2") ;; => 100.0

Note: The domain of string->number may be restricted by implementations in the following ways. If all numbers supported by an implementation are real, then string->number is permitted to return #f whenever strin**g uses the polar or rectangular notations for complex numbers. If all numbers are integers, then string->number may return #f whenever the fractional notation is used. If all numbers are exact, then string->number may return #f whenever an exponent marker or explicit exactness prefix is used. If all inexact numbers are integers, then string->number may return #f whenever a decimal point is used.

The rules used by a particular implementation for string->number must also be applied to read and to the routine that reads programs, in order to maintain consistency between internal numeric processing, I/O, and the processing of programs. As a consequence, the R5RS permission to return #f when string has an explicit radix prefix has been withdrawn.

Booleans

The standard boolean objects for true and false are written as #t and

f. Alternatively, they can be written #true and #false, respectively.

What really matters, though, are the objects that the Scheme conditional expressions (if, cond, and, or, when, unless, do) treat as true or false. The phrase “a true value” (or sometimes just “true”) means any object treated as true by the conditional expressions, and the phrase “a false value” (or “false”) means any object treated as false by the conditional expressions.

Of all the Scheme values, only #f counts as false in conditional expressions. All other Scheme values, including #t, count as true.

Note: Unlike some other dialects of Lisp, Scheme distinguishes #f and the empty list from each other and from the symbol nil.

Boolean constants evaluate to themselves, so they do not need to be quoted in programs.

#t ;; => #t
#f ;; => #f
'#f ;; => #f

(not obj)  procedure

The not procedure returns #t if obj is false, and returns #f otherwise.

(not #t) ;; => #f
(not 3) ;; => #f
(not (list 3)) ;; => #f
(not #f) ;; => #t
(not '()) ;; => #f
(not (list)) ;; => #f
(not 'nil) ;; => #f

(boolean? obj)  procedure

The boolean? predicate returns #t if obj is either #t or #f and returns #f otherwise.

(boolean? #f) ;; => #t
(boolean? 0) ;; => #f
(boolean? '()) ;; => #f

(boolean=? *boolean1 boolean2 boolean3 … *) procedure

Returns #t if all the arguments are #t or all are #f.

Pairs and lists

A pair (sometimes called a dotted pair) is a record structure with two fields called the car and cdr fields (for historical reasons). Pairs are created by the procedure cons. The car and cdr fields are accessed by the procedures car and cdr. The car and cdr fields are assigned by the procedures set-car! and set-cdr!.

Pairs are used primarily to represent lists. A list can be defined recursively as either the empty list or a pair whose cdr is a list. More precisely, the set of lists is defined as the smallest set X such that

The objects in the car fields of successive pairs of a list are the elements of the list. For example, a two-element list is a pair whose car is the first element and whose cdr is a pair whose car is the second element and whose cdr is the empty list. The length of a list is the number of elements, which is the same as the number of pairs.

The empty list is a special object of its own type. It is not a pair, it has no elements, and its length is zero.

Note: The above definitions imply that all lists have finite length and are terminated by the empty list.

The most general notation (external representation) for Scheme pairs is the “dotted” notation (c1 . c2) where c1 is the value of the car field and c2 is the value of the cdr field. For example (4 . 5) is a pair whose car is 4 and whose cdr is 5. Note that (4 . 5) is the external representation of a pair, not an expression that evaluates to a pair.

A more streamlined notation can be used for lists: the elements of the list are simply enclosed in parentheses and separated by spaces. The empty list is written (). For example,

(a b c d e)

and

(a . (b . (c . (d . (e . ())))))

are equivalent notations for a list of symbols.

A chain of pairs not ending in the empty list is called an improper list. Note that an improper list is not a list. The list and dotted notations can be combined to represent improper lists:

(a b c . d)

is equivalent to

(a . (b . (c . d)))

Whether a given pair is a list depends upon what is stored in the cdr field. When the set-cdr! procedure is used, an object can be a list one moment and not the next:

(define x (list 'a 'b 'c))
(define y x)
y ;; => (a b c)
(list? y) ;; => #t
(set-cdr! x 4) ;; => unspecified
x ;; => (a . 4)
(eqv? x y) ;; => #t
y ;; => (a . 4)
(list? y) ;; => #f
(set-cdr! x x) ;; => unspecified
(list? x) ;; => #f

Within literal expressions and representations of objects read by the read procedure, the forms datum, `datum,,datum, and,@datum denote two-element lists whose first elements are the symbolsquote,quasiquote,unquote, andunquote-splicing`, respectively. The second element in each case is datum. This convention is supported so that arbitrary Scheme programs can be represented as lists. That is, according to Scheme’s grammar, every expression is also a datum (see section [datum]). Among other things, this permits the use of the read procedure to parse Scheme programs. See section [externalreps].

(pair? obj)  procedure

The pair? predicate returns #t if obj is a pair, and otherwise returns

f.

(pair? '(a . b)) ;; => #t
(pair? '(a b c)) ;; => #t
(pair? '()) ;; => #f
(pair? '#(a b)) ;; => #f

(cons obj1 obj2)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated pair whose car is obj1 and whose cdr is obj2. The pair is guaranteed to be different (in the sense of eqv?) from every existing object.

(cons 'a '()) ;; => (a)
(cons '(a) '(b c d)) ;; => ((a) b c d)
(cons "a" '(b c)) ;; => ("a" b c)
(cons 'a 3) ;; => (a . 3)
(cons '(a b) 'c) ;; => ((a b) . c)

(car pair)  procedure

Returns the contents of the car field of pair. Note that it is an error to take the car of the empty list.

(car '(a b c)) ;; => a
(car '((a) b c d)) ;; => (a)
(car '(1 . 2)) ;; => 1
(car '()) ;; => error

(cdr pair)  procedure

Returns the contents of the cdr field of pair. Note that it is an error to take the cdr of the empty list.

(cdr '((a) b c d)) ;; => (b c d)
(cdr '(1 . 2)) ;; => 2
(cdr '()) ;; => error

(set-car! pair obj)  procedure

Stores obj in the car field of pair.

(define (f) (list 'not-a-constant-list))
(define (g) '(constant-list))
(set-car! (f) 3) ;; => unspecified
(set-car! (g) 3) ;; => error

(set-cdr! pair obj)  procedure

Stores obj in the cdr field of pair.

(cadr pair) procedure

(caar pair)  procedure

(cadr pair)  procedure

(cdar pair)  procedure

(cddr pair)  procedure

These procedures are compositions of car and cdr as follows:

(define (caar x) (car (car x)))
(define (cadr x) (car (cdr x)))
(define (cdar x) (cdr (car x)))
(define (cddr x) (cdr (cdr x)))

(caaar pair)  cxr library procedure

(caadr pair)  cxr library procedure

(cdddar pair)  cxr library procedure

(cddddr pair)  cxr library procedure

These twenty-four procedures are further compositions of car and cdr on the same principles. For example, caddr could be defined by

(define caddr (lambda (x) (car (cdr (cdr x)))))

Arbitrary compositions up to four deep are provided.

(null? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is the empty list, otherwise returns #f.

(list? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is a list. Otherwise, it returns #f. By definition, all lists have finite length and are terminated by the empty list.

(list? '(a b c)) ;; => #t
(list? '()) ;; => #t
(list? '(a . b)) ;; => #f
(let ((x (list 'a)))
  (set-cdr! x x)
  (list? x)) ;; => #f

(make-list k)  procedure

(make-list k fill)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated list of k elements. If a second argument is given, then each element is initialized to fill. Otherwise the initial contents of each element is unspecified.

(make-list 2 3) ;; => (3 3)

(list *obj … *)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated list of its arguments.

(list 'a (+ 3 4) 'c) ;; => (a 7 c)
(list) ;; => ()

(length list)  procedure

Returns the length of list.

(length '(a b c)) ;; => 3
(length '(a (b) (c d e))) ;; => 3
(length '()) ;; => 0

(append list … )  procedure

The last argument, if there is one, can be of any type.

Returns a list consisting of the elements of the first list followed by the elements of the other lists. If there are no arguments, the empty list is returned. If there is exactly one argument, it is returned. Otherwise the resulting list is always newly allocated, except that it shares structure with the last argument. An improper list results if the last argument is not a proper list.

(append '(x) '(y)) ;; => (x y)
(append '(a) '(b c d)) ;; => (a b c d)
(append '(a (b)) '((c))) ;; => (a (b) (c))

(append '(a b) '(c . d)) ;; => (a b c . d)
(append '() 'a) ;; => a

(reverse list)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated list consisting of the elements of list in reverse order.

(reverse '(a b c)) ;; => (c b a)
(reverse '(a (b c) d (e (f)))) ;; => ((e (f)) d (b c) a)

(list-tail list k**)  procedure

It is an error if list has fewer than k elements.

Returns the sublist of list obtained by omitting the first k elements. The list-tail procedure could be defined by

(define list-tail
  (lambda (x k)
    (if (zero? k)
        x
        (list-tail (cdr x) (- k 1)))))

(list-ref list k**)  procedure

The list argument can be circular, but it is an error if list has k or fewer elements.

Returns the kth element of list. (This is the same as the car of (list-tail list k).)

(list-ref '(a b c d) 2) ;; => c
(list-ref '(a b c d)
          (exact (round 1.8))) ;; => c

(list-set! list k obj)  procedure

It is an error if k is not a valid index of list.

The list-set! procedure stores obj in element k of list.

(let ((ls (list 'one 'two 'five!)))
  (list-set! ls 2 'three)
  ls) ;; => (one two three)

(list-set! '(0 1 2) 1 "oops") ;; => error  ; constant list

(memq obj list)  procedure

(memv obj list)  procedure

(member obj list)  procedure

(member obj list compare)  procedure

These procedures return the first sublist of list whose car is obj, where the sublists of list are the non-empty lists returned by (list-tail list k) for k less than the length of list. If obj does not occur in list, then #f (not the empty list) is returned. The memq procedure uses eq? to compare obj with the elements of list, while memv uses eqv? and member uses compare, if given, and equal? otherwise.

(memq 'a '(a b c)) ;; => (a b c)
(memq 'b '(a b c)) ;; => (b c)
(memq 'a '(b c d)) ;; => #f
(memq (list 'a) '(b (a) c)) ;; => #f
(member (list 'a)
        '(b (a) c)) ;; => ((a) c)
(member "B"
        '("a" "b" "c")
        string-ci=?) ;; => ("b" "c")
(memq 101 '(100 101 102)) ;; => unspecified
(memv 101 '(100 101 102)) ;; => (101 102)

(assq obj alist)  procedure

(assv obj alist)  procedure

(assoc obj alist)  procedure

(assoc obj alist compare)  procedure

It is an error if alist (for “association list”) is not a list of pairs.

These procedures find the first pair in alist whose car field is obj, and returns that pair. If no pair in alist has obj as its car, then #f (not the empty list) is returned. The assq procedure uses eq? to compare obj with the car fields of the pairs in alist, while assv uses eqv? and assoc uses compare if given and equal? otherwise.

(define e '((a 1) (b 2) (c 3)))
(assq 'a e) ;; => (a 1)
(assq 'b e) ;; => (b 2)
(assq 'd e) ;; => #f
(assq (list 'a) '(((a)) ((b)) ((c))))
;; => #f
(assoc (list 'a) '(((a)) ((b)) ((c))))
;; => ((a))
(assoc 2.0 '((1 1) (2 4) (3 9)) =)
;; => (2 4)
(assq 5 '((2 3) (5 7) (11 13)))
;; => unspecified
(assv 5 '((2 3) (5 7) (11 13)))
;; => (5 7)

Rationale: Although they are often used as predicates, memq, memv, member, assq, assv, and assoc do not have question marks in their names because they return potentially useful values rather than just #t or #f.

(list-copy obj)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated copy of the given obj if it is a list. Only the pairs themselves are copied; the cars of the result are the same (in the sense of eqv?) as the cars of list. If obj is an improper list, so is the result, and the final cdrs are the same in the sense of eqv?. An obj which is not a list is returned unchanged. It is an error if obj is a circular list.

(define a '(1 8 2 8)) ; a may be immutable
(define b (list-copy a))
(set-car! b 3)        ; b is mutable
b ;; => (3 8 2 8)
a ;; => (1 8 2 8)

Symbols

Symbols are objects whose usefulness rests on the fact that two symbols are identical (in the sense of eqv?) if and only if their names are spelled the same way. For instance, they can be used the way enumerated values are used in other languages.

The rules for writing a symbol are exactly the same as the rules for writing an identifier; see sections [syntaxsection] and [identifiersyntax].

It is guaranteed that any symbol that has been returned as part of a literal expression, or read using the read procedure, and subsequently written out using the write procedure, will read back in as the identical symbol (in the sense of eqv?).

Note: Some implementations have values known as “uninterned symbols,” which defeat write/read invariance, and also violate the rule that two symbols are the same if and only if their names are spelled the same. This report does not specify the behavior of implementation-dependent extensions.

(symbol? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is a symbol, otherwise returns #f.

(symbol? 'foo) ;; => #t
(symbol? (car '(a b))) ;; => #t
(symbol? "bar") ;; => #f
(symbol? 'nil) ;; => #t
(symbol? '()) ;; => #f
(symbol? #f) ;; => #f

(symbol=? *symbol1 symbol2 symbol3 … *) procedure

Returns #t if all the arguments all have the same names in the sense of string=?.

Note: The definition above assumes that none of the arguments are uninterned symbols.

(symbol->string symbol)  procedure

Returns the name of symbol as a string, but without adding escapes. It is an error to apply mutation procedures like string-set! to strings returned by this procedure.

(symbol->string 'flying-fish)
;; => "flying-fish"
(symbol->string 'Martin) ;; => "Martin"
(symbol->string
 (string->symbol "Malvina"))
;; => "Malvina"

(string->symbol string)  procedure

Returns the symbol whose name is string. This procedure can create symbols with names containing special characters that would require escaping when written, but does not interpret escapes in its input.

(string->symbol "mISSISSIppi")  ;; => mISSISSIppi
(eqv? 'bitBlt (string->symbol "bitBlt")) ;; => #t
(eqv? 'LollyPop
      (string->symbol
       (symbol->string 'LollyPop))) ;; => #t
    (string=? "K. Harper, M.D."
              (symbol->string
               (string->symbol "K. Harper, M.D."))) ;; => #t

Characters

Characters are objects that represent printed characters such as letters and digits. All Scheme implementations must support at least the ASCII character repertoire: that is, Unicode characters U+0000 through U+007F. Implementations may support any other Unicode characters they see fit, and may also support non-Unicode characters as well. Except as otherwise specified, the result of applying any of the following procedures to a non-Unicode character is implementation-dependent.

Characters are written using the notation #``'character or #``'character name or #``'xhex scalar value.

The following character names must be supported by all implementations with the given values. Implementations may add other names provided they cannot be interpreted as hex scalar values preceded by x.

; U+0007
; U+0008
; U+007F
; U+001B
; the linefeed character, U+000A
; the null character, U+0000
; the return character, U+000D
; the preferred way to write a space
; the tab character, U+0009

Here are some additional examples:

; lower case letter
; upper case letter
; left parenthesis
; the space character
; λ (if character is supported)
; ι (if character and name are supported)

Case is significant in #``'character, and in #``'⟨character name⟩, but not in #``'xhex scalar value. If character in #``'character is alphabetic, then any character immediately following character cannot be one that can appear in an identifier. This rule resolves the ambiguous case where, for example, the sequence of characters “#' space” could be taken to be either a representation of the space character or a representation of the character “#' s” followed by a representation of the symbol “pace.”

Characters written in the #``' notation are self-evaluating. That is, they do not have to be quoted in programs.

Some of the procedures that operate on characters ignore the difference between upper case and lower case. The procedures that ignore case have “-ci” (for “case insensitive”) embedded in their names.

(char? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is a character, otherwise returns #f.

(char=? char1 char2 char3 … ) procedure

(char\<? char1 char2 char3 … ) procedure

(char>? char1 char2 char3 … ) procedure

(char\<=? char1 char2 char3 … ) procedure

(char>=? char1 char2 char3 … ) procedure

These procedures return #t if the results of passing their arguments to charinteger are respectively equal, monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing, monotonically non-decreasing, or monotonically non-increasing.

These predicates are required to be transitive.

(char-ci=? char1 char2 char3 … ) char library procedure

(char-ci\<? char1 char2 char3 … ) char library procedure

(char-ci>? char1 char2 char3 … ) char library procedure

(char-ci\<=? char1 char2 char3 … ) char library procedure

(char-ci>=? char1 char2 char3 … ) char library procedure

These procedures are similar to char=? et cetera, but they treat upper case and lower case letters as the same. For example, (char-ci=? #'A

'a) returns #t.

Specifically, these procedures behave as if char-foldcase were applied to their arguments before they were compared.

(char-alphabetic? char)  char library procedure

(char-numeric? char)  char library procedure

(char-whitespace? char)  char library procedure

(char-upper-case? letter)  char library procedure

(char-lower-case? letter)  char library procedure

These procedures return #t if their arguments are alphabetic, numeric, whitespace, upper case, or lower case characters, respectively, otherwise they return #f.

Specifically, they must return #t when applied to characters with the Unicode properties Alphabetic, Numeric_Type=Decimal, White_Space, Uppercase, and Lowercase respectively, and #f when applied to any other Unicode characters. Note that many Unicode characters are alphabetic but neither upper nor lower case.

(digit-value char)  char library procedure

This procedure returns the numeric value (0 to 9) of its argument if it is a numeric digit (that is, if char-numeric? returns #t), or #f on any other character.

(digit-value #\3) ;; => 3
(digit-value #\x0664) ;; => 4
(digit-value #\x0AE6) ;; => 0
(digit-value #\x0EA6) ;; => #f

(char->integer char)  procedure

(integer->char n)  procedure

Given a Unicode character, charinteger returns an exact integer between 0 and #xD7FF or between #xE000 and #x10FFFF which is equal to the Unicode scalar value of that character. Given a non-Unicode character, it returns an exact integer greater than #x10FFFF. This is true independent of whether the implementation uses the Unicode representation internally.

Given an exact integer that is the value returned by a character when charinteger is applied to it, integerchar returns that character.

(char-upcase char)  char library procedure

(char-downcase char)  char library procedure

(char-foldcase char)  char library procedure

The char-upcase procedure, given an argument that is the lowercase part of a Unicode casing pair, returns the uppercase member of the pair, provided that both characters are supported by the Scheme implementation. Note that language-sensitive casing pairs are not used. If the argument is not the lowercase member of such a pair, it is returned.

The char-downcase procedure, given an argument that is the uppercase part of a Unicode casing pair, returns the lowercase member of the pair, provided that both characters are supported by the Scheme implementation. Note that language-sensitive casing pairs are not used. If the argument is not the uppercase member of such a pair, it is returned.

The char-foldcase procedure applies the Unicode simple case-folding algorithm to its argument and returns the result. Note that language-sensitive folding is not used. If the character that results from folding is not supported by the implementation, the argument is returned. See UAX #44  (part of the Unicode Standard) for details.

Note that many Unicode lowercase characters do not have uppercase equivalents.

Strings

Strings are sequences of characters. Strings are written as sequences of characters enclosed within quotation marks ("). Within a string literal, various escape sequences represent characters other than themselves. Escape sequences always start with a backslash ('):

The result is unspecified if any other character in a string occurs after a backslash.

Except for a line ending, any character outside of an escape sequence stands for itself in the string literal. A line ending which is preceded by 'intraline whitespace expands to nothing (along with any trailing intraline whitespace), and can be used to indent strings for improved legibility. Any other line ending has the same effect as inserting a 'n character into the string.

Examples:

"The word \"recursion\" has many meanings."
"Another example:\ntwo lines of text"
"Here's text \
       containing just one line"
"\x03B1; is named GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA."

The length of a string is the number of characters that it contains. This number is an exact, non-negative integer that is fixed when the string is created. The valid indexes of a string are the exact non-negative integers less than the length of the string. The first character of a string has index 0, the second has index 1, and so on.

Some of the procedures that operate on strings ignore the difference between upper and lower case. The names of the versions that ignore case end with “-ci” (for “case insensitive”).

Implementations may forbid certain characters from appearing in strings. However, with the exception of #' null, ASCII characters must not be forbidden. For example, an implementation might support the entire Unicode repertoire, but only allow characters U+0001 to U+00FF (the Latin-1 repertoire without #' null) in strings.

It is an error to pass such a forbidden character to make-string, string, string-set!, or string-fill!, as part of the list passed to liststring, or as part of the vector passed to vectorstring (see section [vectortostring]), or in UTF-8 encoded form within a bytevector passed to utf8string (see section [utf8tostring]). It is also an error for a procedure passed to string-map (see section [stringmap]) to return a forbidden character, or for read-string (see section [readstring]) to attempt to read one.

(string? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is a string, otherwise returns #f.

(make-string k)  procedure

(make-string *k char*)  procedure

The make-string procedure returns a newly allocated string of length k. If char is given, then all the characters of the string are initialized to char, otherwise the contents of the string are unspecified.

(string char … )  procedure

Returns a newly allocated string composed of the arguments. It is analogous to list.

(string-length string)  procedure

Returns the number of characters in the given string.

(string-ref string k**)  procedure

It is an error if k is not a valid index of string.

The string-ref procedure returns character k of string using zero-origin indexing. There is no requirement for this procedure to execute in constant time.

(string-set! string k char)  procedure

It is an error if k is not a valid index of string.

The string-set! procedure stores char in element k of string. There is no requirement for this procedure to execute in constant time.

(define (f) (make-string 3 #\*))
(define (g) "***")
(string-set! (f) 0 #\?) ;; => unspecified
(string-set! (g) 0 #\?) ;; => error
(string-set! (symbol->string 'immutable)
             0
             #\?) ;; => error

(string=? string1 string2 string3 … ) procedure

Returns #t if all the strings are the same length and contain exactly the same characters in the same positions, otherwise returns #f.

(string-ci=? string1 string2 string3 … ) char library procedure

Returns #t if, after case-folding, all the strings are the same length and contain the same characters in the same positions, otherwise returns

f. Specifically, these procedures behave as if string-foldcase were

applied to their arguments before comparing them.

(string\<? string1 string2 string3 … ) procedure

(string-ci\<? string1 string2 string3 … ) char library procedure

(string>? string1 string2 string3 … ) procedure

(string-ci>? string1 string2 string3 … ) char library procedure

(string\<=? string1 string2 string3 … ) procedure

(string-ci\<=? string1 string2 string3 … ) char library procedure

(string>=? string1 string2 string3 … ) procedure

(string-ci>=? string1 string2 string3 … ) char library procedure

These procedures return #t if their arguments are (respectively): monotonically increasing, monotonically decreasing, monotonically non-decreasing, or monotonically non-increasing.

These predicates are required to be transitive.

These procedures compare strings in an implementation-defined way. One approach is to make them the lexicographic extensions to strings of the corresponding orderings on characters. In that case, string\<? would be the lexicographic ordering on strings induced by the ordering char\<? on characters, and if the two strings differ in length but are the same up to the length of the shorter string, the shorter string would be considered to be lexicographically less than the longer string. However, it is also permitted to use the natural ordering imposed by the implementation’s internal representation of strings, or a more complex locale-specific ordering.

In all cases, a pair of strings must satisfy exactly one of string\<?, string=?, and string>?, and must satisfy string\<=? if and only if they do not satisfy string>? and string>=? if and only if they do not satisfy string\<?.

The “-ci” procedures behave as if they applied string-foldcase to their arguments before invoking the corresponding procedures without “-ci”.

(string-upcase string)  char library procedure

(string-downcase string)  char library procedure

(string-foldcase string)  char library procedure

These procedures apply the Unicode full string uppercasing, lowercasing, and case-folding algorithms to their arguments and return the result. In certain cases, the result differs in length from the argument. If the result is equal to the argument in the sense of string=?, the argument may be returned. Note that language-sensitive mappings and foldings are not used.

The Unicode Standard prescribes special treatment of the Greek letter Σ, whose normal lower-case form is σ but which becomes ς at the end of a word. See UAX #44  (part of the Unicode Standard) for details. However, implementations of string-downcase are not required to provide this behavior, and may choose to change Σ to σ in all cases.

(substring string start end)  procedure

The substring procedure returns a newly allocated string formed from the characters of string beginning with index start and ending with index end. This is equivalent to calling string-copy with the same arguments, but is provided for backward compatibility and stylistic flexibility.

(string-append *string … *)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated string whose characters are the concatenation of the characters in the given strings.

(string->list string)  procedure

(string->list string start)  procedure

(string->list string start end)  procedure

(list->string list)  procedure

It is an error if any element of list is not a character.

The stringlist procedure returns a newly allocated list of the characters of string between start and end. liststring returns a newly allocated string formed from the elements in the list list. In both procedures, order is preserved. stringlist and liststring are inverses so far as equal? is concerned.

(string-copy string)  procedure

(string-copy string start)  procedure

(string-copy string start end)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated copy of the part of the given string between start and end.

(string-copy! to at from)  procedure

(string-copy! to at from start)  procedure

(string-copy! to at from start end)  procedure

It is an error if at is less than zero or greater than the length of to. It is also an error if (- (string-length to) at) is less than (- end start).

Copies the characters of string from between start and end to string to, starting at at. The order in which characters are copied is unspecified, except that if the source and destination overlap, copying takes place as if the source is first copied into a temporary string and then into the destination. This can be achieved without allocating storage by making sure to copy in the correct direction in such circumstances.

(define a "12345")
(define b (string-copy "abcde"))
(string-copy! b 1 a 0 2)
b ;; => "a12de"

(string-fill! string fill)  procedure

(string-fill! string fill start)  procedure

(string-fill! string fill start end)  procedure

It is an error if fill is not a character.

The string-fill! procedure stores fill in the elements of string between start and end.

Vectors

Vectors are heterogeneous structures whose elements are indexed by integers. A vector typically occupies less space than a list of the same length, and the average time needed to access a randomly chosen element is typically less for the vector than for the list.

The length of a vector is the number of elements that it contains. This number is a non-negative integer that is fixed when the vector is created. The valid indexes of a vector are the exact non-negative integers less than the length of the vector. The first element in a vector is indexed by zero, and the last element is indexed by one less than the length of the vector.

Vectors are written using the notation #(obj ...). For example, a vector of length 3 containing the number zero in element 0, the list (2 2 2 2) in element 1, and the string "Anna" in element 2 can be written as follows:

#(0 (2 2 2 2) "Anna")

Vector constants are self-evaluating, so they do not need to be quoted in programs.

(vector? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is a vector; otherwise returns #f.

(make-vector k)  procedure

(make-vector k fill)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated vector of k elements. If a second argument is given, then each element is initialized to fill. Otherwise the initial contents of each element is unspecified.

(vector obj … )  procedure

Returns a newly allocated vector whose elements contain the given arguments. It is analogous to list.

(vector 'a 'b 'c) ;; => #(a b c)

(vector-length vector)  procedure

Returns the number of elements in vector as an exact integer.

(vector-ref vector k)  procedure

It is an error if k is not a valid index of vector.

The vector-ref procedure returns the contents of element k of vector.

(vector-ref '#(1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21)
            5) ;; => 8
(vector-ref '#(1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21)
            (exact
             (round (* 2 (acos -1))))) ;; => 13

(vector-set! vector k obj)  procedure

It is an error if k is not a valid index of vector.

The vector-set! procedure stores obj in element k of vector.

(let ((vec (vector 0 '(2 2 2 2) "Anna")))
  (vector-set! vec 1 '("Sue" "Sue"))
  vec) ;; => #(0 ("Sue" "Sue") "Anna")

(vector-set! '#(0 1 2) 1 "doe") ;; => error  ; constant vector

(vector->list vector)  procedure

(vector->list vector start)  procedure

(vector->list vector start end)  procedure

(list->vector list)  procedure

The vector->list procedure returns a newly allocated list of the objects contained in the elements of vector between start and end. The list->vector procedure returns a newly created vector initialized to the elements of the list list.

In both procedures, order is preserved.

(vector->list '#(dah dah didah)) ;; => (dah dah didah)
(vector->list '#(dah dah didah) 1 2) ;; => (dah)
(list->vector '(dididit dah)) ;; => #(dididit dah)

(vector->string vector)  procedure

(vector->string vector start)  procedure

(vector->string vector start end)  procedure

(string->vector string)  procedure

(string->vector string start)  procedure

(string->vector string start end)  procedure

It is an error if any element of vector between start and end is not a character.

The vector->string procedure returns a newly allocated string of the objects contained in the elements of vector between start and end. The string->vector procedure returns a newly created vector initialized to the elements of the string string between start and end.

In both procedures, order is preserved.

(string->vector "ABC") ;; => #(#\A #\B #\C)
(vector->string
 #(#\1 #\2 #\3) ;; => "123"

(vector-copy vector)  procedure

(vector-copy vector start)  procedure

(vector-copy vector start end)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated copy of the elements of the given vector between start and end. The elements of the new vector are the same (in the sense of eqv?) as the elements of the old.

(define a #(1 8 2 8)) ; a may be immutable
(define b (vector-copy a))
(vector-set! b 0 3)   ; b is mutable
b ;; => #(3 8 2 8)
(define c (vector-copy b 1 3))
c ;; => #(8 2)

(vector-copy! to at from)  procedure

(vector-copy! to at from start)  procedure

(vector-copy! to at from start end)  procedure

It is an error if at is less than zero or greater than the length of to. It is also an error if (- (vector-length to) at) is less than (- end start).

Copies the elements of vector from between start and end to vector to, starting at at. The order in which elements are copied is unspecified, except that if the source and destination overlap, copying takes place as if the source is first copied into a temporary vector and then into the destination. This can be achieved without allocating storage by making sure to copy in the correct direction in such circumstances.

(define a (vector 1 2 3 4 5))
(define b (vector 10 20 30 40 50))
(vector-copy! b 1 a 0 2)
b ;; => #(10 1 2 40 50)

(vector-append *vector … *)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated vector whose elements are the concatenation of the elements of the given vectors.

(vector-append #(a b c) #(d e f)) ;; => #(a b c d e f)

(vector-fill! vector fill)  procedure

(vector-fill! vector fill start)  procedure

(vector-fill! vector fill start end)  procedure

The vector-fill! procedure stores fill in the elements of vector between start and end.

(define a (vector 1 2 3 4 5))
(vector-fill! a 'smash 2 4)
a ;; => #(1 2 smash smash 5)

Bytevectors

Bytevectors represent blocks of binary data. They are fixed-length sequences of bytes, where a byte is an exact integer in the range from 0 to 255 inclusive. A bytevector is typically more space-efficient than a vector containing the same values.

The length of a bytevector is the number of elements that it contains. This number is a non-negative integer that is fixed when the bytevector is created. The valid indexes of a bytevector are the exact non-negative integers less than the length of the bytevector, starting at index zero as with vectors.

Bytevectors are written using the notation #u8(byte ...). For example, a bytevector of length 3 containing the byte 0 in element 0, the byte 10 in element 1, and the byte 5 in element 2 can be written as follows:

#u8(0 10 5)

Bytevector constants are self-evaluating, so they do not need to be quoted in programs.

(bytevector? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is a bytevector. Otherwise, #f is returned.

(make-bytevector k)  procedure

(make-bytevector k byte)  procedure

The make-bytevector procedure returns a newly allocated bytevector of length k. If byte is given, then all elements of the bytevector are initialized to byte, otherwise the contents of each element are unspecified.

(make-bytevector 2 12) ;; => #u8(12 12)

(bytevector *byte … *)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated bytevector containing its arguments.

(bytevector 1 3 5 1 3 5) ;; => #u8(1 3 5 1 3 5)
(bytevector) ;; => #u8()

(bytevector-length bytevector)  procedure

Returns the length of bytevector in bytes as an exact integer.

(bytevector-u8-ref bytevector k)  procedure

It is an error if k is not a valid index of bytevector.

Returns the kth byte of bytevector.

(bytevector-u8-ref '#u8(1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21)
                   5) ;; => 8

(bytevector-u8-set! bytevector k byte)  procedure

It is an error if k is not a valid index of bytevector.

Stores byte as the kth byte of bytevector.

(let ((bv (bytevector 1 2 3 4)))
  (bytevector-u8-set! bv 1 3)
  bv) ;; => #u8(1 3 3 4)

(bytevector-copy bytevector)  procedure

(bytevector-copy bytevector start)  procedure

(bytevector-copy bytevector start end)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated bytevector containing the bytes in bytevector between start and end.

(define a #u8(1 2 3 4 5))
(bytevector-copy a 2 4)) ;; => #u8(3 4)

(bytevector-copy! to at from)  procedure

(bytevector-copy! to at from start)  procedure

(bytevector-copy! to at from start end)  procedure

It is an error if at is less than zero or greater than the length of to. It is also an error if (- (bytevector-length to) at) is less than (- end start).

Copies the bytes of bytevector from between start and end to bytevector to, starting at at. The order in which bytes are copied is unspecified, except that if the source and destination overlap, copying takes place as if the source is first copied into a temporary bytevector and then into the destination. This can be achieved without allocating storage by making sure to copy in the correct direction in such circumstances.

(define a (bytevector 1 2 3 4 5))
(define b (bytevector 10 20 30 40 50))
(bytevector-copy! b 1 a 0 2)
b ;; => #u8(10 1 2 40 50)

Note: This procedure appears in R6RS, but places the source before the destination, contrary to other such procedures in Scheme.

(bytevector-append *bytevector … *)  procedure

Returns a newly allocated bytevector whose elements are the concatenation of the elements in the given bytevectors.

(bytevector-append #u8(0 1 2) #u8(3 4 5)) ;; => #u8(0 1 2 3 4 5)

(utf8->string bytevector)  procedure

(utf8->string bytevector start)  procedure

(utf8->string bytevector start end)  procedure

(string->utf8 string)  procedure

(string->utf8 string start)  procedure

(string->utf8 string start end)  procedure

It is an error for bytevector to contain invalid UTF-8 byte sequences.

These procedures translate between strings and bytevectors that encode those strings using the UTF-8 encoding. The utf8string procedure decodes the bytes of a bytevector between start and end and returns the corresponding string; the stringutf8 procedure encodes the characters of a string between start and end and returns the corresponding bytevector.

(utf8->string #u8(#x41)) ;; => "A"
(string->utf8 "λ") ;; => #u8(#xCE #xBB)

Control features

This section describes various primitive procedures which control the flow of program execution in special ways. Procedures in this section that invoke procedure arguments always do so in the same dynamic environment as the call of the original procedure. The procedure? predicate is also described here.

(procedure? obj)  procedure Returns #t if obj is a procedure, otherwise returns #f.

(procedure? car) ;; => #t
(procedure? 'car) ;; => #f
(procedure? (lambda (x) (* x x)))
 ;; => #t
(procedure? '(lambda (x) (* x x)))
;; => #f
(call-with-current-continuation procedure?)
;; => #t

(apply proc arg1 … args)  procedure

The apply procedure calls proc with the elements of the list (append (list *arg<sub>1</sub>* … ) *args*) as the actual arguments.

(apply + (list 3 4)) ;; => 7

(define compose
  (lambda (f g)
    (lambda args
      (f (apply g args)))))

((compose sqrt *) 12 75) ;; => 30

(map proc list1 list2 … )  procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept as many arguments as there are lists and return a single value.

The map procedure applies proc element-wise to the elements of the lists and returns a list of the results, in order. If more than one list is given and not all lists have the same length, map terminates when the shortest list runs out. The lists can be circular, but it is an error if all of them are circular. It is an error for proc to mutate any of the lists. The dynamic order in which proc is applied to the elements of the lists is unspecified. If multiple returns occur from map, the values returned by earlier returns are not mutated.

(map cadr '((a b) (d e) (g h))) ;; => (b e h)

(map (lambda (n) (expt n n))
     '(1 2 3 4 5)) ;; => (1 4 27 256 3125)

(map + '(1 2 3) '(4 5 6 7)) ;; => (5 7 9)

(let ((count 0))
  (map (lambda (ignored)
         (set! count (+ count 1))
         count)
       '(a b))) ;; => (1 2) \var{or} (2 1)

(string-map proc string1 string2 … ) procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept as many arguments as there are strings and return a single character.

The string-map procedure applies proc element-wise to the elements of the strings and returns a string of the results, in order. If more than one string is given and not all strings have the same length, string-map terminates when the shortest string runs out. The dynamic order in which proc is applied to the elements of the strings is unspecified. If multiple returns occur from string-map, the values returned by earlier returns are not mutated.

(string-map char-foldcase "AbdEgH") ;; => "abdegh"

(string-map
 (lambda (c)
   (integer->char (+ 1 (char->integer c))))
 "HAL") ;; => "IBM"

(string-map
 (lambda (c k)
   ((if (eqv? k #\u) char-upcase char-downcase)
    c))
 "studlycaps xxx"
 "ululululul") ;; => "StUdLyCaPs"

(vector-map proc vector1 vector2 … ) procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept as many arguments as there are vectors and return a single value.

The vector-map procedure applies proc element-wise to the elements of the vectors and returns a vector of the results, in order. If more than one vector is given and not all vectors have the same length, vector-map terminates when the shortest vector runs out. The dynamic order in which proc is applied to the elements of the vectors is unspecified. If multiple returns occur from vector-map, the values returned by earlier returns are not mutated.

(vector-map cadr '#((a b) (d e) (g h))) ;; => #(b e h)

(vector-map (lambda (n) (expt n n))
            '#(1 2 3 4 5)) ;; => #(1 4 27 256 3125)

(vector-map + '#(1 2 3) '#(4 5 6 7)) ;; => #(5 7 9)

(let ((count 0))
  (vector-map
   (lambda (ignored)
     (set! count (+ count 1))
     count)
   '#(a b))) ;; => #(1 2) \var{or} #(2 1)

(for-each proc list1 list2 … )  procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept as many arguments as there are lists.

The arguments to for-each are like the arguments to map, but for-each calls proc for its side effects rather than for its values. Unlike map, for-each is guaranteed to call proc on the elements of the lists in order from the first element(s) to the last, and the value returned by for-each is unspecified. If more than one list is given and not all lists have the same length, for-each terminates when the shortest list runs out. The lists can be circular, but it is an error if all of them are circular.

It is an error for proc to mutate any of the lists.

(let ((v (make-vector 5)))
  (for-each (lambda (i)
              (vector-set! v i (* i i)))
            '(0 1 2 3 4))
  v) ;; => #(0 1 4 9 16)

(string-for-each proc string1 string2 … ) procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept as many arguments as there are strings.

The arguments to string-for-each are like the arguments to string-map, but string-for-each calls proc for its side effects rather than for its values. Unlike string-map, string-for-each is guaranteed to call proc on the elements of the strings in order from the first element(s) to the last, and the value returned by string-for-each is unspecified. If more than one string is given and not all strings have the same length, string-for-each terminates when the shortest string runs out. It is an error for proc to mutate any of the strings.

(let ((v '()))
  (string-for-each
   (lambda (c) (set! v (cons (char->integer c) v)))
   "abcde")
  v) ;; => (101 100 99 98 97)

(vector-for-each proc vector1 vector2 … ) procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept as many arguments as there are vectors.

The arguments to vector-for-each are like the arguments to vector-map, but vector-for-each calls proc for its side effects rather than for its values. Unlike vector-map, vector-for-each is guaranteed to call proc on the elements of the vectors in order from the first element(s) to the last, and the value returned by vector-for-each is unspecified. If more than one vector is given and not all vectors have the same length, vector-for-each terminates when the shortest vector runs out. It is an error for proc to mutate any of the vectors.

(let ((v (make-list 5)))
  (vector-for-each
   (lambda (i) (list-set! v i (* i i)))
   '#(0 1 2 3 4))
  v) ;; => (0 1 4 9 16)

(call-with-current-continuation proc)  procedure

(call/cc proc)  procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept one argument.

The procedure call-with-current-continuation (or its equivalent abbreviation call/cc) packages the current continuation (see the rationale below) as an “escape procedure” and passes it as an argument to proc. The escape procedure is a Scheme procedure that, if it is later called, will abandon whatever continuation is in effect at that later time and will instead use the continuation that was in effect when the escape procedure was created. Calling the escape procedure will cause the invocation of before and after thunks installed using dynamic-wind.

The escape procedure accepts the same number of arguments as the continuation to the original call to call-with-current-continuation. Most continuations take only one value. Continuations created by the call-with-values procedure (including the initialization expressions of define-values, let-values, and let*-values expressions), take the number of values that the consumer expects. The continuations of all non-final expressions within a sequence of expressions, such as in lambda, case-lambda, begin, let, let*, letrec, letrec*, let-values, let*-values, let-syntax, letrec-syntax, parameterize, guard, case, cond, when, and unless expressions, take an arbitrary number of values because they discard the values passed to them in any event. The effect of passing no values or more than one value to continuations that were not created in one of these ways is unspecified.

The escape procedure that is passed to proc has unlimited extent just like any other procedure in Scheme. It can be stored in variables or data structures and can be called as many times as desired. However, like the raise and error procedures, it never returns to its caller.

The following examples show only the simplest ways in which call-with-current-continuation is used. If all real uses were as simple as these examples, there would be no need for a procedure with the power of call-with-current-continuation.

(call-with-current-continuation
 (lambda (exit)
   (for-each (lambda (x)
               (if (negative? x)
                   (exit x)))
             '(54 0 37 -3 245 19))
   #t)) ;; => -3

(define list-length
  (lambda (obj)
    (call-with-current-continuation
     (lambda (return)
       (letrec ((r
                 (lambda (obj)
                   (cond ((null? obj) 0)
                         ((pair? obj)
                          (+ (r (cdr obj)) 1))
                         (else (return #f))))))
         (r obj))))))

(list-length '(1 2 3 4)) ;; => 4

(list-length '(a b . c)) ;; => #f

Rationale:

A common use of call-with-current-continuation is for structured, non-local exits from loops or procedure bodies, but in fact call-with-current-continuation is useful for implementing a wide variety of advanced control structures. In fact, raise and guard provide a more structured mechanism for non-local exits.

Whenever a Scheme expression is evaluated there is a continuation wanting the result of the expression. The continuation represents an entire (default) future for the computation. If the expression is evaluated at the REPL, for example, then the continuation might take the result, print it on the screen, prompt for the next input, evaluate it, and so on forever. Most of the time the continuation includes actions specified by user code, as in a continuation that will take the result, multiply it by the value stored in a local variable, add seven, and give the answer to the REPL’s continuation to be printed. Normally these ubiquitous continuations are hidden behind the scenes and programmers do not think much about them. On rare occasions, however, a programmer needs to deal with continuations explicitly. The call-with-current-continuation procedure allows Scheme programmers to do that by creating a procedure that acts just like the current continuation.

(values obj …)  procedure

Delivers all of its arguments to its continuation. The values procedure might be defined as follows:

(define (values . things)
  (call-with-current-continuation
   (lambda (cont) (apply cont things))))

(call-with-values producer consumer)  procedure

Calls its producer argument with no arguments and a continuation that, when passed some values, calls the consumer procedure with those values as arguments. The continuation for the call to consumer is the continuation of the call to call-with-values.

(call-with-values (lambda () (values 4 5))
  (lambda (a b) b))
;; => 5

(call-with-values * -) ;; => -1

(dynamic-wind before thunk after)  procedure

Calls thunk without arguments, returning the result(s) of this call. Before and after are called, also without arguments, as required by the following rules. Note that, in the absence of calls to continuations captured using call-with-current-continuation, the three arguments are called once each, in order. Before is called whenever execution enters the dynamic extent of the call to thunk and after is called whenever it exits that dynamic extent. The dynamic extent of a procedure call is the period between when the call is initiated and when it returns. The before and after thunks are called in the same dynamic environment as the call to dynamic-wind. In Scheme, because of call-with-current-continuation, the dynamic extent of a call is not always a single, connected time period. It is defined as follows:

If a second call to dynamic-wind occurs within the dynamic extent of the call to thunk and then a continuation is invoked in such a way that the afters from these two invocations of dynamic-wind are both to be called, then the after associated with the second (inner) call to dynamic-wind is called first.

If a second call to dynamic-wind occurs within the dynamic extent of the call to thunk and then a continuation is invoked in such a way that the befores from these two invocations of dynamic-wind are both to be called, then the before associated with the first (outer) call to dynamic-wind is called first.

If invoking a continuation requires calling the before from one call to dynamic-wind and the after from another, then the after is called first.

The effect of using a captured continuation to enter or exit the dynamic extent of a call to before or after is unspecified.

(let ((path '())
      (c #f))
  (let ((add (lambda (s)
               (set! path (cons s path)))))
    (dynamic-wind
        (lambda () (add 'connect))
        (lambda ()
          (add (call-with-current-continuation
                (lambda (c0)
                  (set! c c0)
                  'talk1))))
        (lambda () (add 'disconnect)))
    (if (< (length path) 4)
        (c 'talk2)
        (reverse path))))
;; => (connect talk1 disconnect connect talk2 disconnect)

Exceptions

This section describes Scheme’s exception-handling and exception-raising procedures. For the concept of Scheme exceptions, see section [errorsituations]. See also [guard] for the guard syntax.

Exception handlers are one-argument procedures that determine the action the program takes when an exceptional situation is signaled. The system implicitly maintains a current exception handler in the dynamic environment.

The program raises an exception by invoking the current exception handler, passing it an object encapsulating information about the exception. Any procedure accepting one argument can serve as an exception handler and any object can be used to represent an exception.

(with-exception-handler handler thunk)  procedure

It is an error if handler does not accept one argument. It is also an error if thunk does not accept zero arguments.

The with-exception-handler procedure returns the results of invoking thunk. Handler is installed as the current exception handler in the dynamic environment used for the invocation of thunk.

(call-with-current-continuation
 (lambda (k)
   (with-exception-handler
    (lambda (x)
      (display "condition: ")
      (write x)
      (newline)
      (k 'exception))
    (lambda ()
      (+ 1 (raise 'an-error))))))
;; => exception and prints condition: an-error

(with-exception-handler
 (lambda (x)
   (display "something went wrong\n"))
 (lambda ()
   (+ 1 (raise 'an-error))))
;; prints something went wrong

After printing, the second example then raises another exception.

(raise obj)  procedure

Raises an exception by invoking the current exception handler on obj. The handler is called with the same dynamic environment as that of the call to raise, except that the current exception handler is the one that was in place when the handler being called was installed. If the handler returns, a secondary exception is raised in the same dynamic environment as the handler. The relationship between obj and the object raised by the secondary exception is unspecified.

(raise-continuable obj)  procedure

Raises an exception by invoking the current exception handler on obj. The handler is called with the same dynamic environment as the call to raise-continuable, except that: (1) the current exception handler is the one that was in place when the handler being called was installed, and (2) if the handler being called returns, then it will again become the current exception handler. If the handler returns, the values it returns become the values returned by the call to raise-continuable.

(with-exception-handler
 (lambda (con)
   (cond
    ((string? con)
     (display con))
    (else
     (display "a warning has been issued")))
   42)
 (lambda ()
   (+ (raise-continuable "should be a number")
      23)))
;; prints: should be a number
;; => 65

(error *message obj …*)  procedure

Message should be a string.

Raises an exception as if by calling raise on a newly allocated implementation-defined object which encapsulates the information provided by message, as well as any objs, known as the irritants. The procedure error-object? must return #t on such objects.

(define (null-list? l)
  (cond ((pair? l) #f)
        ((null? l) #t)
        (else
         (error
          "null-list?: argument out of domain"
          l))))

(error-object? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is an object created by error or one of an implementation-defined set of objects. Otherwise, it returns #f. The objects used to signal errors, including those which satisfy the predicates file-error? and read-error?, may or may not satisfy error-object?.

(error-object-message error-object)  procedure

Returns the message encapsulated by error-object.

(error-object-irritants error-object)  procedure

Returns a list of the irritants encapsulated by error-object.

(read-error? obj)  procedure

(file-error? obj)  procedure

Error type predicates. Returns #t if obj is an object raised by the read procedure or by the inability to open an input or output port on a file, respectively. Otherwise, it returns #f.

Environments and evaluation

(environment list1 … )  eval library procedure

This procedure returns a specifier for the environment that results by starting with an empty environment and then importing each list, considered as an import set, into it. (See section [libraries] for a description of import sets.) The bindings of the environment represented by the specifier are immutable, as is the environment itself.

(scheme-report-environment version)  r5rs library procedure

If version is equal to 5, corresponding to R5RS, scheme-report-environment returns a specifier for an environment that contains only the bindings defined in the R5RS library. Implementations must support this value of version.

Implementations may also support other values of version, in which case they return a specifier for an environment containing bindings corresponding to the specified version of the report. If version is neither 5 nor another value supported by the implementation, an error is signaled.

The effect of defining or assigning (through the use of eval) an identifier bound in a scheme-report-environment (for example car) is unspecified. Thus both the environment and the bindings it contains may be immutable.

(null-environment version)  r5rs library procedure

If version is equal to 5, corresponding to R5RS, the null-environment procedure returns a specifier for an environment that contains only the bindings for all syntactic keywords defined in the R5RS library. Implementations must support this value of version.

Implementations may also support other values of version, in which case they return a specifier for an environment containing appropriate bindings corresponding to the specified version of the report. If version is neither 5 nor another value supported by the implementation, an error is signaled.

The effect of defining or assigning (through the use of eval) an identifier bound in a scheme-report-environment (for example car) is unspecified. Thus both the environment and the bindings it contains may be immutable.

(interaction-environment)  repl library procedure

This procedure returns a specifier for a mutable environment that contains an implementation-defined set of bindings, typically a superset of those exported by (scheme base). The intent is that this procedure will return the environment in which the implementation would evaluate expressions entered by the user into a REPL.

(eval expr-or-def environment-specifier)  eval library procedure

If expr-or-def is an expression, it is evaluated in the specified environment and its values are returned. If it is a definition, the specified identifier(s) are defined in the specified environment, provided the environment is not immutable. Implementations may extend eval to allow other objects.

(eval '(* 7 3) (environment '(scheme base)))
;; => 21

(let ((f (eval '(lambda (f x) (f x x))
               (null-environment 5))))
  (f + 10))
;; => 20
(eval '(define foo 32)
      (environment '(scheme base)))
;; => error is signaled

Input and output

Ports

Ports represent input and output devices. To Scheme, an input port is a Scheme object that can deliver data upon command, while an output port is a Scheme object that can accept data. Whether the input and output port types are disjoint is implementation-dependent.

Different port types operate on different data. Scheme implementations are required to support textual ports and binary ports, but may also provide other port types.

A textual port supports reading or writing of individual characters from or to a backing store containing characters using read-char and write-char below, and it supports operations defined in terms of characters, such as read and write.

A binary port supports reading or writing of individual bytes from or to a backing store containing bytes using read-u8 and write-u8 below, as well as operations defined in terms of bytes. Whether the textual and binary port types are disjoint is implementation-dependent.

Ports can be used to access files, devices, and similar things on the host system on which the Scheme program is running.

(call-with-port port proc)  procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept one argument.

The call-with-port procedure calls proc with port as an argument. If proc returns, then the port is closed automatically and the values yielded by the proc are returned. If proc does not return, then the port must not be closed automatically unless it is possible to prove that the port will never again be used for a read or write operation.

Rationale: Because Scheme’s escape procedures have unlimited extent, it is possible to escape from the current continuation but later to resume it. If implementations were permitted to close the port on any escape from the current continuation, then it would be impossible to write portable code using both call-with-current-continuation and call-with-port.

(call-with-input-file string proc)  file library procedure

(call-with-output-file string proc)  file library procedure

It is an error if proc does not accept one argument.

These procedures obtain a textual port obtained by opening the named file for input or output as if by open-input-file or open-output-file. The port and proc are then passed to a procedure equivalent to call-with-port.

(input-port? obj)  procedure

(output-port? obj)  procedure

(textual-port? obj)  procedure

(binary-port? obj)  procedure

(port? obj)  procedure

These procedures return #t if obj is an input port, output port, textual port, binary port, or any kind of port, respectively. Otherwise they return #f.

(input-port-open? port)  procedure

(output-port-open? port)  procedure

Returns #t if port is still open and capable of performing input or output, respectively, and #f otherwise.

(current-input-port)  procedure

(current-output-port)  procedure

(current-error-port)  procedure

Returns the current default input port, output port, or error port (an output port), respectively. These procedures are parameter objects, which can be overridden with parameterize (see section [make-parameter]). The initial bindings for these are implementation-defined textual ports.

(with-input-from-file string thunk)  file library procedure

(with-output-to-file string thunk)  file library procedure

The file is opened for input or output as if by open-input-file or open-output-file, and the new port is made to be the value returned by current-input-port or current-output-port (as used by (read), (write obj), and so forth). The thunk is then called with no arguments. When the thunk returns, the port is closed and the previous default is restored. It is an error if thunk does not accept zero arguments. Both procedures return the values yielded by thunk. If an escape procedure is used to escape from the continuation of these procedures, they behave exactly as if the current input or output port had been bound dynamically with parameterize.

(open-input-file string)  file library procedure

(open-binary-input-file string)  file library procedure

Takes a string for an existing file and returns a textual input port or binary input port that is capable of delivering data from the file. If the file does not exist or cannot be opened, an error that satisfies file-error? is signaled.

(open-output-file string)  file library procedure

(open-binary-output-file string)  file library procedure

Takes a string naming an output file to be created and returns a textual output port or binary output port that is capable of writing data to a new file by that name.

If a file with the given name already exists, the effect is unspecified. If the file cannot be opened, an error that satisfies file-error? is signaled.

(close-port port)  procedure

(close-input-port port)  procedure

(close-output-port port)  procedure

Closes the resource associated with port, rendering the port incapable of delivering or accepting data. It is an error to apply the last two procedures to a port which is not an input or output port, respectively. Scheme implementations may provide ports which are simultaneously input and output ports, such as sockets; the close-input-port and close-output-port procedures can then be used to close the input and output sides of the port independently.

These routines have no effect if the port has already been closed.

(open-input-string string)  procedure

Takes a string and returns a textual input port that delivers characters from the string. If the string is modified, the effect is unspecified.

(open-output-string)  procedure

Returns a textual output port that will accumulate characters for retrieval by get-output-string.

(get-output-string port)  procedure

It is an error if port was not created with open-output-string.

Returns a string consisting of the characters that have been output to the port so far in the order they were output. If the result string is modified, the effect is unspecified.

(parameterize
    ((current-output-port
      (open-output-string)))
  (display "piece")
  (display " by piece ")
  (display "by piece.")
  (newline)
  (get-output-string (current-output-port)))
;; => "piece by piece by piece.\n"

(open-input-bytevector bytevector)  procedure

Takes a bytevector and returns a binary input port that delivers bytes from the bytevector.

(open-output-bytevector)  procedure

Returns a binary output port that will accumulate bytes for retrieval by get-output-bytevector.

(get-output-bytevector port)  procedure

It is an error if port was not created with open-output-bytevector.

Returns a bytevector consisting of the bytes that have been output to the port so far in the order they were output.

Input

If port is omitted from any input procedure, it defaults to the value returned by (current-input-port). It is an error to attempt an input operation on a closed port.

(read)  read library procedure

(read port)  read library procedure

The read procedure converts external representations of Scheme objects into the objects themselves. That is, it is a parser for the non-terminal datum (see sections [datum] and [listsection]). It returns the next object parsable from the given textual input port, updating port to point to the first character past the end of the external representation of the object.

Implementations may support extended syntax to represent record types or other types that do not have datum representations.

If an end of file is encountered in the input before any characters are found that can begin an object, then an end-of-file object is returned. The port remains open, and further attempts to read will also return an end-of-file object. If an end of file is encountered after the beginning of an object’s external representation, but the external representation is incomplete and therefore not parsable, an error that satisfies read-error? is signaled.

(read-char)  procedure

(read-char port)  procedure

Returns the next character available from the textual input port, updating the port to point to the following character. If no more characters are available, an end-of-file object is returned.

(peek-char)  procedure

(peek-char port)  procedure

Returns the next character available from the textual input port, but without updating the port to point to the following character. If no more characters are available, an end-of-file object is returned.

Note: The value returned by a call to peek-char is the same as the value that would have been returned by a call to read-char with the same port. The only difference is that the very next call to read-char or peek-char on that port will return the value returned by the preceding call to peek-char. In particular, a call to peek-char on an interactive port will hang waiting for input whenever a call to read-char would have hung.

(read-line)  procedure

(read-line port)  procedure

Returns the next line of text available from the textual input port, updating the port to point to the following character. If an end of line is read, a string containing all of the text up to (but not including) the end of line is returned, and the port is updated to point just past the end of line. If an end of file is encountered before any end of line is read, but some characters have been read, a string containing those characters is returned. If an end of file is encountered before any characters are read, an end-of-file object is returned. For the purpose of this procedure, an end of line consists of either a linefeed character, a carriage return character, or a sequence of a carriage return character followed by a linefeed character. Implementations may also recognize other end of line characters or sequences.

(eof-object? obj)  procedure

Returns #t if obj is an end-of-file object, otherwise returns #f. The precise set of end-of-file objects will vary among implementations, but in any case no end-of-file object will ever be an object that can be read in using read.

(eof-object)  procedure

Returns an end-of-file object, not necessarily unique.

(char-ready?)  procedure

(char-ready? port)  procedure

Returns #t if a character is ready on the textual input port and returns #f otherwise. If char-ready returns #t then the next read-char operation on the given port is guaranteed not to hang. If the port is at end of file then char-ready? returns #t.

Rationale: The char-ready? procedure exists to make it possible for a program to accept characters from interactive ports without getting stuck waiting for input. Any input editors associated with such ports must ensure that characters whose existence has been asserted by char-ready? cannot be removed from the input. If char-ready? were to return #f at end of file, a port at end of file would be indistinguishable from an interactive port that has no ready characters.

(read-string k)  procedure

(read-string k port)  procedure

Reads the next k characters, or as many as are available before the end of file, from the textual input port into a newly allocated string in left-to-right order and returns the string. If no characters are available before the end of file, an end-of-file object is returned.

(read-u8)  procedure

(read-u8 port)  procedure

Returns the next byte available from the binary input port, updating the port to point to the following byte. If no more bytes are available, an end-of-file object is returned.

(peek-u8)  procedure

(peek-u8 port)  procedure

Returns the next byte available from the binary input port, but without updating the port to point to the following byte. If no more bytes are available, an end-of-file object is returned.

(u8-ready?)  procedure (u8-ready? port)  procedure

Returns #t if a byte is ready on the binary input port and returns #f otherwise. If u8-ready? returns #t then the next read-u8 operation on the given port is guaranteed not to hang. If the port is at end of file then u8-ready? returns #t.

(read-bytevector k)  procedure

(read-bytevector k port)  procedure

Reads the next k bytes, or as many as are available before the end of file, from the binary input port into a newly allocated bytevector in left-to-right order and returns the bytevector. If no bytes are available before the end of file, an end-of-file object is returned.

(read-bytevector! bytevector)  procedure

(read-bytevector! bytevector port)  procedure

(read-bytevector! bytevector port start)  procedure

(read-bytevector! bytevector port start end)  procedure

Reads the next end − start bytes, or as many as are available before the end of file, from the binary input port into bytevector in left-to-right order beginning at the start position. If end is not supplied, reads until the end of bytevector has been reached. If start is not supplied, reads beginning at position 0. Returns the number of bytes read. If no bytes are available, an end-of-file object is returned.

Output

If port is omitted from any output procedure, it defaults to the value returned by (current-output-port). It is an error to attempt an output operation on a closed port.

(write obj)  write library procedure

(write obj port)  write library procedure

Writes a representation of obj to the given textual output port. Strings that appear in the written representation are enclosed in quotation marks, and within those strings backslash and quotation mark characters are escaped by backslashes. Symbols that contain non-ASCII characters are escaped with vertical lines. Character objects are written using the #' notation.

If obj contains cycles which would cause an infinite loop using the normal written representation, then at least the objects that form part of the cycle must be represented using datum labels as described in section [labelsection]. Datum labels must not be used if there are no cycles.

Implementations may support extended syntax to represent record types or other types that do not have datum representations.

The write procedure returns an unspecified value.

(write-shared obj)  write library procedure

(write-shared obj port)  write library procedure

The write-shared procedure is the same as write, except that shared structure must be represented using datum labels for all pairs and vectors that appear more than once in the output.

(write-simple obj)  write library procedure

(write-simple obj port)  write library procedure

The write-simple procedure is the same as write, except that shared structure is never represented using datum labels. This can cause write-simple not to terminate if obj contains circular structure.

(display obj)  write library procedure

(display obj port)  write library procedure

Writes a representation of obj to the given textual output port. Strings that appear in the written representation are output as if by write-string instead of by write. Symbols are not escaped. Character objects appear in the representation as if written by write-char instead of by write.

The display representation of other objects is unspecified. However, display must not loop forever on self-referencing pairs, vectors, or records. Thus if the normal write representation is used, datum labels are needed to represent cycles as in write.

Implementations may support extended syntax to represent record types or other types that do not have datum representations.

The display procedure returns an unspecified value.

Rationale: The write procedure is intended for producing machine-readable output and display for producing human-readable output.

(newline)  procedure

(newline port)  procedure

Writes an end of line to textual output port. Exactly how this is done differs from one operating system to another. Returns an unspecified value.

(write-char char)  procedure

(write-char char port)  procedure

Writes the character char (not an external representation of the character) to the given textual output port and returns an unspecified value.

(write-string string)  procedure

(write-string string port)  procedure

(write-string string port start)  procedure

(write-string string port start end)  procedure

Writes the characters of string from start to end in left-to-right order to the textual output port.

(write-u8 byte)  procedure

(write-u8 byte port)  procedure

Writes the byte to the given binary output port and returns an unspecified value.

(write-bytevector bytevector)  procedure

(write-bytevector bytevector port)  procedure

(write-bytevector bytevector port start)  procedure

(write-bytevector bytevector port start end)  procedure

Writes the bytes of bytevector from start to end in left-to-right order to the binary output port.

(flush-output-port)  procedure

(flush-output-port port)  procedure

Flushes any buffered output from the buffer of output-port to the underlying file or device and returns an unspecified value.

System interface

Questions of system interface generally fall outside of the domain of this report. However, the following operations are important enough to deserve description here.

(load filename)  load library procedure

(load filename environment-specifier)  load library procedure

It is an error if filename is not a string.

An implementation-dependent operation is used to transform filename into the name of an existing file containing Scheme source code. The load procedure reads expressions and definitions from the file and evaluates them sequentially in the environment specified by environment-specifier. If environment-specifier is omitted, (interaction-environment) is assumed.

It is unspecified whether the results of the expressions are printed. The load procedure does not affect the values returned by current-input-port and current-output-port. It returns an unspecified value.

Rationale: For portability, load must operate on source files. Its operation on other kinds of files necessarily varies among implementations.

(file-exists? filename)  file library procedure

It is an error if filename is not a string.

The file-exists? procedure returns #t if the named file exists at the time the procedure is called, and #f otherwise.

(delete-file filename)  file library procedure

It is an error if filename is not a string.

The delete-file procedure deletes the named file if it exists and can be deleted, and returns an unspecified value. If the file does not exist or cannot be deleted, an error that satisfies file-error? is signaled.

(command-line)  process-context library procedure

Returns the command line passed to the process as a list of strings. The first string corresponds to the command name, and is implementation-dependent. It is an error to mutate any of these strings.

(exit)  process-context library procedure

(exit obj)  process-context library procedure

Runs all outstanding dynamic-wind after procedures, terminates the running program, and communicates an exit value to the operating system. If no argument is supplied, or if obj is #t, the exit procedure should communicate to the operating system that the program exited normally. If obj is #f, the exit procedure should communicate to the operating system that the program exited abnormally. Otherwise, exit should translate obj into an appropriate exit value for the operating system, if possible.

The exit procedure must not signal an exception or return to its continuation.

Note: Because of the requirement to run handlers, this procedure is not just the operating system’s exit procedure.

(emergency-exit)  process-context library procedure

(emergency-exit obj)  process-context library procedure

Terminates the program without running any outstanding dynamic-wind after procedures and communicates an exit value to the operating system in the same manner as exit.

Note: The emergency-exit procedure corresponds to the _exit procedure in Windows and Posix.

(get-environment-variable name)  process-context library procedure

Many operating systems provide each running process with an environment consisting of environment variables. (This environment is not to be confused with the Scheme environments that can be passed to eval: see section [environments].) Both the name and value of an environment variable are strings. The procedure get-environment-variable returns the value of the environment variable name, or #f if the named environment variable is not found. It may use locale information to encode the name and decode the value of the environment variable. It is an error if get-environment-variable can’t decode the value. It is also an error to mutate the resulting string.

(get-environment-variable "PATH") ;; => "/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin"

(get-environment-variables)  process-context library procedure Returns the names and values of all the environment variables as an alist, where the car of each entry is the name of an environment variable and the cdr is its value, both as strings. The order of the list is unspecified. It is an error to mutate any of these strings or the alist itself.

(get-environment-variables) ;; => (("USER" . "root") ("HOME" . "/"))

(current-second)  time library procedure Returns an inexact number representing the current time on the International Atomic Time (TAI) scale. The value 0.0 represents midnight on January 1, 1970 TAI (equivalent to 8.000082 seconds before midnight Universal Time) and the value 1.0 represents one TAI second later. Neither high accuracy nor high precision are required; in particular, returning Coordinated Universal Time plus a suitable constant might be the best an implementation can do.

As of 2018, a TAI-UTC offset table can be found at .

(current-jiffy)  time library procedure Returns the number of jiffies as an exact integer that have elapsed since an arbitrary, implementation-defined epoch. A jiffy is an implementation-defined fraction of a second which is defined by the return value of the jiffies-per-second procedure. The starting epoch is guaranteed to be constant during a run of the program, but may vary between runs.

Rationale: Jiffies are allowed to be implementation-dependent so that current-jiffy can execute with minimum overhead. It should be very likely that a compactly represented integer will suffice as the returned value. Any particular jiffy size will be inappropriate for some implementations: a microsecond is too long for a very fast machine, while a much smaller unit would force many implementations to return integers which have to be allocated for most calls, rendering current-jiffy less useful for accurate timing measurements.

(jiffies-per-second)  time library procedure

Returns an exact integer representing the number of jiffies per SI second. This value is an implementation-specified constant.

(define (time-length)
  (let ((list (make-list 100000))
        (start (current-jiffy)))
    (length list)
    (/ (- (current-jiffy) start)
       (jiffies-per-second))))

(features)  procedure

Returns a list of the feature identifiers which cond-expand treats as true. It is an error to modify this list. Here is an example of what features might return:

(features) \ev
(r7rs ratios exact-complex full-unicode
      gnu-linux little-endian
      fantastic-scheme
      fantastic-scheme-1.0
      space-ship-control-system)

Derived expression types

This section gives syntax definitions for the derived expression types in terms of the primitive expression types (literal, variable, call, lambda, if, and set!), except for quasiquote.

Conditional derived syntax types:

(define-syntax cond
  (syntax-rules (else =>)
    ((cond (else result1 result2 ...))
     (begin result1 result2 ...))
    ((cond (test => result))
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp (result temp))))
    ((cond (test => result) clause1 clause2 ...)
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp
           (result temp)
           (cond clause1 clause2 ...))))
    ((cond (test)) test)
    ((cond (test) clause1 clause2 ...)
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp
           temp
           (cond clause1 clause2 ...))))
    ((cond (test result1 result2 ...))
     (if test (begin result1 result2 ...)))
    ((cond (test result1 result2 ...)
           clause1 clause2 ...)
     (if test
         (begin result1 result2 ...)
         (cond clause1 clause2 ...)))))

(define-syntax case
  (syntax-rules (else =>)
    ((case (key ...)
       clauses ...)
     (let ((atom-key (key ...)))
       (case atom-key clauses ...)))
    ((case key
       (else => result))
     (result key))
    ((case key
       (else result1 result2 ...))
     (begin result1 result2 ...))
    ((case key
       ((atoms ...) => result))
     (if (memv key '(atoms ...))
         (result key)))
    ((case key
       ((atoms ...) result1 result2 ...))
     (if (memv key '(atoms ...))
         (begin result1 result2 ...)))
    ((case key
       ((atoms ...) => result)
       clause clauses ...)
     (if (memv key '(atoms ...))
         (result key)
         (case key clause clauses ...)))
    ((case key
       ((atoms ...) result1 result2 ...)
       clause clauses ...)
     (if (memv key '(atoms ...))
         (begin result1 result2 ...)
         (case key clause clauses ...)))))

(define-syntax and
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((and) #t)
    ((and test) test)
    ((and test1 test2 ...)
     (if test1 (and test2 ...) #f))))

(define-syntax or
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((or) #f)
    ((or test) test)
    ((or test1 test2 ...)
     (let ((x test1))
       (if x x (or test2 ...))))))

(define-syntax when
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((when test result1 result2 ...)
     (if test
         (begin result1 result2 ...)))))

(define-syntax unless
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((unless test result1 result2 ...)
     (if (not test)
         (begin result1 result2 ...)))))

Binding constructs:

(define-syntax let
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((let ((name val) ...) body1 body2 ...)
     ((lambda (name ...) body1 body2 ...)
      val ...))
    ((let tag ((name val) ...) body1 body2 ...)
     ((letrec ((tag (lambda (name ...)
                      body1 body2 ...)))
        tag)
      val ...))))

(define-syntax let*
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((let* () body1 body2 ...)
     (let () body1 body2 ...))
    ((let* ((name1 val1) (name2 val2) ...)
       body1 body2 ...)
     (let ((name1 val1))
       (let* ((name2 val2) ...)
         body1 body2 ...)))))

The following letrec macro uses the symbol \ in place of an expression which returns something that when stored in a location makes it an error to try to obtain the value stored in the location. (No such expression is defined in Verbatim.) A trick is used to generate the temporary names needed to avoid specifying the order in which the values are evaluated. This could also be accomplished by using an auxiliary macro.

(define-syntax letrec
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((letrec ((var1 init1) ...) body ...)
     (letrec "generate_temp_names"
       (var1 ...)
       ()
       ((var1 init1) ...)
       body ...))
    ((letrec "generate_temp_names"
       ()
       (temp1 ...)
       ((var1 init1) ...)
       body ...)
     (let ((var1 <undefined>) ...)
       (let ((temp1 init1) ...)
         (set! var1 temp1)
         ...
         body ...)))
    ((letrec "generate_temp_names"
       (x y ...)
       (temp ...)
       ((var1 init1) ...)
       body ...)
     (letrec "generate_temp_names"
       (y ...)
       (newtemp temp ...)
       ((var1 init1) ...)
       body ...))))

(define-syntax letrec*
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((letrec* ((var1 init1) ...) body1 body2 ...)
     (let ((var1 <undefined>) ...)
       (set! var1 init1)
       ...
       (let () body1 body2 ...)))))

(define-syntax let-values
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((let-values (binding ...) body0 body1 ...)
     (let-values "bind"
       (binding ...) () (begin body0 body1 ...)))

    ((let-values "bind" () tmps body)
     (let tmps body))

    ((let-values "bind" ((b0 e0)
                         binding ...) tmps body)
     (let-values "mktmp" b0 e0 ()
                 (binding ...) tmps body))

    ((let-values "mktmp" () e0 args
                 bindings tmps body)
     (call-with-values
         (lambda () e0)
       (lambda args
         (let-values "bind"
           bindings tmps body))))

    ((let-values "mktmp" (a . b) e0 (arg ...)
                 bindings (tmp ...) body)
     (let-values "mktmp" b e0 (arg ... x)
                 bindings (tmp ... (a x)) body))

    ((let-values "mktmp" a e0 (arg ...)
                 bindings (tmp ...) body)
     (call-with-values
         (lambda () e0)
       (lambda (arg ... . x)
         (let-values "bind"
           bindings (tmp ... (a x)) body))))))

(define-syntax let*-values
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((let*-values () body0 body1 ...)
     (let () body0 body1 ...))

    ((let*-values (binding0 binding1 ...)
       body0 body1 ...)
     (let-values (binding0)
       (let*-values (binding1 ...)
         body0 body1 ...)))))

(define-syntax define-values
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((define-values () expr)
     (define dummy
       (call-with-values (lambda () expr)
         (lambda args #f))))
    ((define-values (var) expr)
     (define var expr))
    ((define-values (var0 var1 ... varn) expr)
     (begin
       (define var0
         (call-with-values (lambda () expr)
           list))
       (define var1
         (let ((v (cadr var0)))
           (set-cdr! var0 (cddr var0))
           v)) ...
           (define varn
             (let ((v (cadr var0)))
               (set! var0 (car var0))
               v))))
    ((define-values (var0 var1 ... . varn) expr)
     (begin
       (define var0
         (call-with-values (lambda () expr)
           list))
       (define var1
         (let ((v (cadr var0)))
           (set-cdr! var0 (cddr var0))
           v)) ...
           (define varn
             (let ((v (cdr var0)))
               (set! var0 (car var0))
               v))))
    ((define-values var expr)
     (define var
       (call-with-values (lambda () expr)
         list)))))

(define-syntax begin
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((begin exp ...)
     ((lambda () exp ...)))))

The following alternative expansion for begin does not make use of the ability to write more than one expression in the body of a lambda expression. In any case, note that these rules apply only if the body of the begin contains no definitions.

(define-syntax begin
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((begin exp)
     exp)
    ((begin exp1 exp2 ...)
     (call-with-values
         (lambda () exp1)
       (lambda args
         (begin exp2 ...))))))

The following syntax definition of do uses a trick to expand the variable clauses. As with letrec above, an auxiliary macro would also work. The expression (if #f #f) is used to obtain an unspecific value.

(define-syntax do
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((do ((var init step ...) ...)
         (test expr ...)
       command ...)
     (letrec
         ((loop
           (lambda (var ...)
             (if test
                 (begin
                   (if #f #f)
                   expr ...)
                 (begin
                   command
                   ...
                   (loop (do "step" var step ...)
                         ...))))))
       (loop init ...)))
    ((do "step" x)
     x)
    ((do "step" x y)
     y)))

Here is a possible implementation of delay, force and delay-force. We define the expression

(delay-force <expression>)

to have the same meaning as the procedure call

(make-promise #f (lambda () <expression>))

as follows

(define-syntax delay-force
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((delay-force expression)
     (make-promise #f (lambda () expression)))))

and we define the expression

(delay <expression>)

to have the same meaning as:

(delay-force (make-promise #t <expression>))

as follows

(define-syntax delay
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((delay expression)
     (delay-force (make-promise #t expression)))))

where make-promise is defined as follows:

(define make-promise
  (lambda (done? proc)
    (list (cons done? proc))))

Finally, we define force to call the procedure expressions in promises iteratively using a trampoline technique following until a non-lazy result (i.e. a value created by delay instead of delay-force) is returned, as follows:

(define (force promise)
  (if (promise-done? promise)
      (promise-value promise)
      (let ((promise* ((promise-value promise))))
        (unless (promise-done? promise)
          (promise-update! promise* promise))
        (force promise))))

with the following promise accessors:

(define promise-done?
  (lambda (x) (car (car x))))
(define promise-value
  (lambda (x) (cdr (car x))))
(define promise-update!
  (lambda (new old)
    (set-car! (car old) (promise-done? new))
    (set-cdr! (car old) (promise-value new))
    (set-car! new (car old))))

The following implementation of make-parameter and parameterize is suitable for an implementation with no threads. Parameter objects are implemented here as procedures, using two arbitrary unique objects \<param-set!> and \:

(define (make-parameter init . o)
  (let* ((converter
          (if (pair? o) (car o) (lambda (x) x)))
         (value (converter init)))
    (lambda args
      (cond
       ((null? args)
        value)
       ((eq? (car args) <param-set!>)
        (set! value (cadr args)))
       ((eq? (car args) <param-convert>)
        converter)
       (else
        (error "bad parameter syntax"))))))

Then parameterize uses dynamic-wind to dynamically rebind the associated value:

(define-syntax parameterize
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((parameterize ("step")
       ((param value p old new) ...)
       ()
       body)
     (let ((p param) ...)
       (let ((old (p)) ...
             (new ((p <param-convert>) value)) ...)
         (dynamic-wind
             (lambda () (p <param-set!> new) ...)
             (lambda () . body)
             (lambda () (p <param-set!> old) ...)))))
    ((parameterize ("step")
       args
       ((param value) . rest)
       body)
     (parameterize ("step")
       ((param value p old new) . args)
       rest
       body))
    ((parameterize ((param value) ...) . body)
     (parameterize ("step")
       ()
       ((param value) ...)
       body))))

The following implementation of guard depends on an auxiliary macro, here called guard-aux.

(define-syntax guard
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((guard (var clause ...) e1 e2 ...)
     ((call/cc
       (lambda (guard-k)
         (with-exception-handler
          (lambda (condition)
            ((call/cc
              (lambda (handler-k)
                (guard-k
                 (lambda ()
                   (let ((var condition))
                     (guard-aux
                      (handler-k
                       (lambda ()
                         (raise-continuable condition)))
                      clause ...))))))))
          (lambda ()
            (call-with-values
                (lambda () e1 e2 ...)
              (lambda args
                (guard-k
                 (lambda ()
                   (apply values args)))))))))))))

(define-syntax guard-aux
  (syntax-rules (else =>)
    ((guard-aux reraise (else result1 result2 ...))
     (begin result1 result2 ...))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test => result))
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp
           (result temp)
           reraise)))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test => result)
                clause1 clause2 ...)
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp
           (result temp)
           (guard-aux reraise clause1 clause2 ...))))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test))
     (or test reraise))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test) clause1 clause2 ...)
     (let ((temp test))
       (if temp
           temp
           (guard-aux reraise clause1 clause2 ...))))
    ((guard-aux reraise (test result1 result2 ...))
     (if test
         (begin result1 result2 ...)
         reraise))
    ((guard-aux reraise
                (test result1 result2 ...)
                clause1 clause2 ...)
     (if test
         (begin result1 result2 ...)
         (guard-aux reraise clause1 clause2 ...)))))

(define-syntax case-lambda
  (syntax-rules ()
    ((case-lambda (params body0 ...) ...)
     (lambda args
       (let ((len (length args)))
         (letrec-syntax
             ((cl (syntax-rules ::: ()
                                ((cl)
                                 (error "no matching clause"))
                                ((cl ((p :::) . body) . rest)
                                 (if (= len (length '(p :::)))
                                     (apply (lambda (p :::)
                                              . body)
                                            args)
                                     (cl . rest)))
                                ((cl ((p ::: . tail) . body)
                                     . rest)
                                 (if (>= len (length '(p :::)))
                                     (apply
                                      (lambda (p ::: . tail)
                                        . body)
                                      args)
                                     (cl . rest))))))
           (cl (params body0 ...) ...)))))))

This definition of cond-expand does not interact with the features procedure. It requires that each feature identifier provided by the implementation be explicitly mentioned.

(define-syntax cond-expand
  ;; Extend this to mention all feature ids and libraries
  (syntax-rules (and or not else r7rs library verbatim base)
    ((cond-expand)
     (syntax-error "Unfulfilled cond-expand"))
    ((cond-expand (else body ...))
     (begin body ...))
    ((cond-expand ((and) body ...) more-clauses ...)
     (begin body ...))
    ((cond-expand ((and req1 req2 ...) body ...)
                  more-clauses ...)
     (cond-expand
      (req1
       (cond-expand
        ((and req2 ...) body ...)
        more-clauses ...))
      more-clauses ...))
    ((cond-expand ((or) body ...) more-clauses ...)
     (cond-expand more-clauses ...))
    ((cond-expand ((or req1 req2 ...) body ...)
                  more-clauses ...)
     (cond-expand
      (req1
       (begin body ...))
      (else
       (cond-expand
        ((or req2 ...) body ...)
        more-clauses ...))))
    ((cond-expand ((not req) body ...)
                  more-clauses ...)
     (cond-expand
      (req
       (cond-expand more-clauses ...))
      (else body ...)))
    ((cond-expand (r7rs body ...)
                  more-clauses ...)
     (begin body ...))
    ;; Add clauses here for each
    ;; supported feature identifier.
    ;; Samples:
    ;; ((cond-expand (exact-closed body ...)
    ;;               more-clauses ...)
    ;;   (begin body ...))
    ;; ((cond-expand (ieee-float body ...)
    ;;               more-clauses ...)
    ;;   (begin body ...))
    ((cond-expand ((library (verbatim base))
                   body ...)
                  more-clauses ...)
     (begin body ...))
    ;; Add clauses here for each library
    ((cond-expand (feature-id body ...)
                  more-clauses ...)
     (cond-expand more-clauses ...))
    ((cond-expand ((library (name ...))
                   body ...)
                  more-clauses ...)
     (cond-expand more-clauses ...))))

Standard Libraries

This section lists the exports provided by the standard libraries. The libraries are factored so as to separate features which might not be supported by all implementations, or which might be expensive to load.

The scheme library prefix is used for all standard libraries, and is reserved for use by future standards.

Base Library

The (scheme base) library exports many of the procedures and syntax bindings that are traditionally associated with Scheme. The division between the base library and the other standard libraries is based on use, not on construction. In particular, some facilities that are typically implemented as primitives by a compiler or the run-time system rather than in terms of other standard procedures or syntax are not part of the base library, but are defined in separate libraries. By the same token, some exports of the base library are implementable in terms of other exports. They are redundant in the strict sense of the word, but they capture common patterns of usage, and are therefore provided as convenient abbreviations.

*
+
-
...
/
<
<=
=
=>
>
>=
_
abs
and
append
apply
assoc
assq
assv
begin
binary-port?
boolean=?
boolean?
bytevector
bytevector-append
bytevector-copy
bytevector-copy!
bytevector-length
bytevector-u8-ref
bytevector-u8-set!
bytevector?
caar
cadr
call-with-current-continuation
call-with-port
call-with-values
call/cc
car
case
cdar
cddr
cdr
ceiling
char->integer
char-ready?
char<=?
char<?
char=?
char>=?
char>?
char?
close-input-port
close-output-port
close-port
complex?
cond
cond-expand
cons
current-error-port
current-input-port
current-output-port
define
define-record-type
define-syntax
define-values
denominator
do
dynamic-wind
else
eof-object
eof-object?
eq?
equal?
eqv?
error
error-object-irritants
error-object-message
error-object?
even?
exact
exact-integer-sqrt
exact-integer?
exact?
expt
features
file-error?
floor
floor-quotient
floor-remainder
floor/
flush-output-port
for-each
gcd
get-output-bytevector
get-output-string
guard
if
include
include-ci
inexact
inexact?
input-port-open?
input-port?
integer->char
integer?
lambda
lcm
length
let
let*
let*-values
let-syntax
let-values
letrec
letrec*
letrec-syntax
list
list->string
list->vector
list-copy
list-ref
list-set!
list-tail
list?
make-bytevector
make-list
make-parameter
make-string
make-vector
map
max
member
memq
memv
min
modulo
negative?
newline
not
null?
number->string
number?
numerator
odd?
open-input-bytevector
open-input-string
open-output-bytevector
open-output-string
or
output-port-open?
output-port?
pair?
parameterize
peek-char
peek-u8
port?
positive?
procedure?
quasiquote
quote
quotient
raise
raise-continuable
rational?
rationalize
read-bytevector
read-bytevector!
read-char
read-error?
read-line
read-string
read-u8
real?
remainder
reverse
round
set!
set-car!
set-cdr!
square
string
string->list
string->number
string->symbol
string->utf8
string->vector
string-append
string-copy
string-copy!
string-fill!
string-for-each
string-length
string-map
string-ref
string-set!
string<=?
string<?
string=?
string>=?
string>?
string?
substring
symbol->string
symbol=?
symbol?
syntax-error
syntax-rules
textual-port?
truncate
truncate-quotient
truncate-remainder
truncate/
u8-ready?
unless
unquote
unquote-splicing
utf8->string
values
vector
vector->list
vector->string
vector-append
vector-copy
vector-copy!
vector-fill!
vector-for-each
vector-length
vector-map
vector-ref
vector-set!
vector?
when
with-exception-handler
write-bytevector
write-char
write-string
write-u8
zero?

Case-Lambda Library

The (scheme case-lambda) library exports the case-lambda syntax.

case-lambda

Char Library

The (scheme char) library provides the procedures for dealing with characters that involve potentially large tables when supporting all of Unicode.

char-alphabetic?
char-ci<=?
char-ci<?
char-ci=?
char-ci>=?
char-ci>?
char-downcase
char-foldcase
char-lower-case?
char-numeric?
char-upcase
char-upper-case?
char-whitespace?
digit-value
string-ci<=?
string-ci<?
string-ci=?
string-ci>=?
string-ci>?
string-downcase
string-foldcase
string-upcase

Complex Library

The (scheme complex) library exports procedures which are typically only useful with non-real numbers.

angle                   imag-part
magnitude               make-polar
make-rectangular        real-part

CxR Library

The (scheme cxr) library exports twenty-four procedures which are the compositions of from three to four car and cdr operations. For example caddar could be defined by

(define caddar
  (lambda (x) (car (cdr (cdr (car x))))))

The procedures car and cdr themselves and the four two-level compositions are included in the base library. See section [listsection].

caaaar                  caaadr
caaar                   caadar
caaddr                  caadr
cadaar                  cadadr
cadar                   caddar
cadddr                  caddr
cdaaar                  cdaadr
cdaar                   cdadar
cdaddr                  cdadr
cddaar                  cddadr
cddar                   cdddar
cddddr                  cdddr

Eval Library

The (scheme eval) library exports procedures for evaluating Scheme data as programs.

environment
eval

File Library

The (scheme file) library provides procedures for accessing files.

call-with-input-file
call-with-output-file
delete-file
file-exists?
open-binary-input-file
open-binary-output-file
open-input-file
open-output-file
with-input-from-file
with-output-to-file

Inexact Library

The (scheme inexact) library exports procedures which are typically only useful with inexact values.

acos
asin
atan
cos
exp
finite?
infinite?
log
nan?
sin
sqrt
tan

Lazy Library

The (scheme lazy) library exports procedures and syntax keywords for lazy evaluation.

delay                   delay-force
force                   make-promise
promise?

Load Library

The (scheme load) library exports procedures for loading Scheme expressions from files.

load

Process-Context Library

The (scheme process-context) library exports procedures for accessing with the program’s calling context.

command-line            emergency-exit
exit
get-environment-variable
get-environment-variables

Read Library

The (scheme read) library provides procedures for reading Scheme objects.

read

Repl Library

The (scheme repl) library exports the interaction-environment procedure.

interaction-environment

Time Library

The (scheme time) library provides access to time-related values.

current-jiffy           current-second
jiffies-per-second

Write Library

The (scheme write) library provides procedures for writing Scheme objects.

display                 write
write-shared            write-simple

R5RS Library

The (scheme r5rs) library provides the identifiers defined by R5RS, except that transcript-on and transcript-off are not present. Note that the exact and inexact procedures appear under their R5RS names inexact->exact and exact->inexact respectively. However, if an implementation does not provide a particular library such as the complex library, the corresponding identifiers will not appear in this library either.

\* + - ... / \< \<= = => \> \>= _ abs acos and angle append apply asin
assoc assq assv atan begin boolean?  caaaar caaadr caaar caadar caaddr
caadr caar cadaar cadadr cadar caddar cadddr caddr cadr
call-with-current-continuation call-with-input-file
call-with-output-file call-with-values car case cdaaar cdaadr cdaar
cdadar cdaddr cdadr cdar cddaar cddadr cddar cdddar cddddr cdddr cddr
cdr ceiling char->integer char-alphabetic?  char-ci\<=? char-ci\<?
char-ci=? char-ci>=?  char-ci>? char-downcase char-lower-case?
char-numeric?  char-ready? char-upcase char-upper-case?
char-whitespace?  char\<=? char\<?  char=? char>=?  char>? char?
close-input-port close-output-port complex? cond cons cos
current-input-port current-output-port define define-syntax delay
denominator display do dynamic-wind else eof-object? eq?  equal? eqv?
eval even?  exact->inexact exact?  exp expt floor for-each force gcd if
imag-part inexact->exact inexact?  input-port? integer->char integer?
interaction-environment lambda lcm length let let\* let-syntax letrec
letrec-syntax list list->string list->vector list-ref list-tail list?
load log magnitude make-polar make-rectangular make-string make-vector
map max member memq memv min modulo negative? newline not
null-environment null? number->string number? numerator odd?
open-input-file open-output-file or output-port? pair?  peek-char
positive?  procedure? quasiquote quote quotient rational? rationalize
read read-char real-part real?  remainder reverse round
scheme-report-environment set! set-car! set-cdr! sin sqrt string
string->list string->number string->symbol string-append string-ci\<=?
string-ci\<? string-ci=?  string-ci>=? string-ci>?  string-copy
string-fill! string-length string-ref string-set! string\<=?  string\<?
string=?  string>=? string>?  string? substring symbol->string symbol?
syntax-rules tan truncate values vector vector->list vector-fill!
vector-length vector-ref vector-set! vector? with-input-from-file
with-output-to-file write write-char zero?

Standard Feature Identifiers

An implementation may provide any or all of the feature identifiers listed below for use by cond-expand and features, but must not provide a feature identifier if it does not provide the corresponding feature.

r7rs

All R7RS Scheme implementations have this feature.

exact-closed

The algebraic operations +, -, *, and expt where the second argument is a non-negative integer produce exact values given exact inputs.

exact-complex

Exact complex numbers are provided.

ieee-float

Inexact numbers are IEEE 754 binary floating point values.

full-unicode

All Unicode characters present in Unicode version 6.0 are supported as Scheme characters.

ratios

/ with exact arguments produces an exact result when the divisor is nonzero.

posix

This implementation is running on a POSIX system.

windows

This implementation is running on Windows.

unixdarwingnu-linuxbsdfreebsdsolaris, ...

Operating system flags (perhaps more than one).

i386x86-64ppcsparcjvmclrllvm, ...

CPU architecture flags.

ilp32lp64ilp64, ...

C memory model flags.

big-endianlittle-endian

Byte order flags.

The name of this implementation.

The name and version of this implementation.

Language changes

Incompatibilities with R5RS

This section enumerates the incompatibilities between this report and the “Revised5 report” .

This list is not authoritative, but is believed to be correct and complete.

Other language changes since R5RS

This section enumerates the additional differences between this report and the “Revised5 report” .

This list is not authoritative, but is believed to be correct and complete.

Incompatibilities with R6RS

This section enumerates the incompatibilities between R7RS and the “Revised6 report”  and its accompanying Standard Libraries document.

This list is not authoritative, and is possibly incomplete.

Additional material

The Scheme community website at http://schemers.org contains additional resources for learning and programming, job and event postings, and Scheme user group information.

A bibliography of Scheme-related research at http://library.readscheme.org links to technical papers and theses related to the Scheme language, including both classic papers and recent research.

On-line Scheme discussions are held using IRC on the #scheme channel at irc.freenode.net and on the Usenet discussion group comp.lang.scheme.

Example

The procedure integrate-system integrates the system y*k* = f*k*(y1,y2,…,y*n*), k = 1, …, n of differential equations with the method of Runge-Kutta.

The parameter system-derivative is a function that takes a system state (a vector of values for the state variables y1, …, y*n*) and produces a system derivative (the values y1, …, y*n*). The parameter initial-state provides an initial system state, and h is an initial guess for the length of the integration step.

The value returned by integrate-system is an infinite stream of system states.

(define (integrate-system system-derivative
                          initial-state
                          h)
  (let ((next (runge-kutta-4 system-derivative h)))
    (letrec ((states
              (cons initial-state
                    (delay (map-streams next
                                        states)))))
      states)))

The procedure runge-kutta-4 takes a function, f, that produces a system derivative from a system state. It produces a function that takes a system state and produces a new system state.

(define (runge-kutta-4 f h)
  (let ((*h (scale-vector h))
        (*2 (scale-vector 2))
        (*1/2 (scale-vector (/ 1 2)))
        (*1/6 (scale-vector (/ 1 6))))
    (lambda (y)
      ;; y is a system state
      (let* ((k0 (*h (f y)))
             (k1 (*h (f (add-vectors y (*1/2 k0)))))
             (k2 (*h (f (add-vectors y (*1/2 k1)))))
             (k3 (*h (f (add-vectors y k2)))))
        (add-vectors y
                     (*1/6 (add-vectors k0
                                        (*2 k1)
                                        (*2 k2)
                                        k3)))))))

(define (elementwise f)
  (lambda vectors
    (generate-vector
     (vector-length (car vectors))
     (lambda (i)
       (apply f
              (map (lambda (v) (vector-ref  v i))
                   vectors))))))

(define (generate-vector size proc)
  (let ((ans (make-vector size)))
    (letrec ((loop
              (lambda (i)
                (cond ((= i size) ans)
                      (else
                       (vector-set! ans i (proc i))
                       (loop (+ i 1)))))))
      (loop 0))))

(define add-vectors (elementwise +))

(define (scale-vector s)
  (elementwise (lambda (x) (* x s))))

The map-streams procedure is analogous to map: it applies its first argument (a procedure) to all the elements of its second argument (a stream).

(define (map-streams f s)
  (cons (f (head s))
        (delay (map-streams f (tail s)))))

Infinite streams are implemented as pairs whose car holds the first element of the stream and whose cdr holds a promise to deliver the rest of the stream.

(define head car)
(define (tail stream)
  (force (cdr stream)))

The following illustrates the use of integrate-system in integrating the system $$C {dv_C \\over dt} = -i_L - {v_C \\over R}$$ $$L {di_L \\over dt} = v_C$$ which models a damped oscillator.

(define (damped-oscillator R L C)
  (lambda (state)
    (let ((Vc (vector-ref state 0))
          (Il (vector-ref state 1)))
      (vector (- 0 (+ (/ Vc (* R C)) (/ Il C)))
              (/ Vc L)))))

(define the-states
  (integrate-system
   (damped-oscillator 10000 1000 .001)
   '#(1 0)
   .01))

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